Table 6.

Combined effects of BMI and blood glucose on risk of selected obesity-related cancers

BMI/blood glucosea<25/Nl glucose<25/Abnl glucose≥25/Nl glucose≥25/Abnl glucose
Colon cancers
N1,3561721,911324
 Cancers/person-years36/24,5693/2,61494/34,01614/4,555
 IR/10,000 person-years14.711.527.630.7
 HR (95% CI)
  Unadjusted1.0 (reference)0.83 (0.26–2.7)1.9 (1.3–2.8)2.3 (1.3–4.3)
  Adjusted model 1b1.0 (reference)0.83 (0.25–2.7)1.8 (1.2–2.7)2.2 (1.2–4.1)
  Adjusted model 2c1.0 (reference)0.84 (0.26–2.7)1.6 (1.0–2.5)1.8 (0.93–3.6)
Female reproductive cancersd
N876941,006137
 Cancers/person-years59/16,5885/1,54694/18,95913/1,960
 IR/10,000 person-years35.632.349.666.3
 HR (95% CI)
  Unadjusted1.0 (reference)0.95 (0.38–2.4)1.4 (1.0–1.9)2.0 (1.1–3.7)
  Adjusted model 1b1.0 (reference)0.92 (0.37–2.3)1.5 (1.1–2.1)2.2 (1.2–4.1)
  Adjusted model 2c1.0 (reference)0.91 (0.36–2.3)1.7 (1.1–2.5)2.6 (1.4–4.9)
Female reproductive cancers, excluding breast cancer
N876941,006137
 Cancers/person-years9/16,8961/1,58319/19,5583/2,040
 IR/10,000 person-years5.36.39.714.7
 HR (95% CI)
  Unadjusted1.0 (reference)1.2 (0.15–9.5)1.8 (0.83–4.1)2.8 (0.74–10.2)
  Adjusted model 1b1.0 (reference)1.3 (0.17–10.5)2.1 (0.91–4.7)3.4 (0.90–13.1)
  Adjusted model 2c1.0 (reference)1.3 (0.17–10.7)1.9 (0.76–4.9)3.2 (0.75–13.3)

Abbreviations: Abnl, abnormal; IR, incidence rate; Nl, normal.

  • aNl versus Abnl glucose: <125 (not on insulin or oral hypoglycemics) versus ≥125 mg/dL or treated.

  • bModel 1: Adjusted for age, sex (for colon cancer model), height, education level, alcohol, cigarettes/day, and physical activity.

  • cModel 2: Model 1 plus WC.

  • dFemale reproductive cancers include postmenopausal breast, cervical, endometrial, and uterine cancers.