Table 3.

Association between environmental factors and colorectal cancer in GECCO

Environmental variablesORa95% CIPPhet
BMI (per 10 kg/m2)1.431.34–1.531.0 × 10−253.4 × 10−5
Alcohol 1–28 g vs. none0.900.83–0.976.9 × 10−30.21
Alcohol 28+g vs. none1.211.07–1.372.3 × 10−30.28
Smoking (ever vs. never)1.211.14–1.297.8 × 10−100.67
Smoking (per increase in pack-year grouping)b1.091.06–1.111.0 × 10−140.19
Aspirin use (yes vs. no during reference year)0.710.67–0.768.0 × 10−257.2 × 10−4
PMH use (yes vs. no at referent time)0.690.63–0.765.1 × 10−140.16
Dietary calcium (per 500 mg/d)c0.800.75–0.854.3 × 10−130.28
Dietary fiber (per 10 g/d)c0.830.76–0.902.0 × 10−50.42
Dietary folate (per 500 mcg/d)c0.700.59–0.835.3 × 10−50.45
Red meat (per serving/day)1.331.23–1.447.9 × 10−132.9 × 10−6
Red meat (upper vs. lower half)1.251.18–1.342.0 × 10−123.7 × 10−3
Processed meat (servings/day)1.481.30–1.701.0 × 10−88.1 × 10−3
Processed meat (upper vs. lower half)1.211.13–1.307.1 × 10−85.9 × 10−3
Fruit (per 5 servings/day)c0.820.69–0.970.020.79
Fruit (upper vs. lower half)c0.830.78–0.892.5 × 10−88.9 × 10−3
Vegetable (per 5 servings/day)c0.820.70–0.959.0 × 10−30.03
Vegetable (upper vs. lower half)c0.860.80–0.922.8 × 10−50.15
  • aAnalyses adjusted for age, sex, and study center.

  • bPack-year variable categorized into 5 groups: never smokers and study-specific quartiles of pack-years smoked.

  • cAnalyses further adjusted for energy intake where available.