Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study cohort stratified according to occurrence of cancer during follow-up period

NoncancerCancerP
N (%)497 (87.5)71 (12.5)
Age, y61 ± 1064 ± 80.03
Female (N, %)251 (51)36 (51)1.0
Smoking (N, %)85 (17)13 (18)0.8
BMI, kg/m224.6 ± 3.324.9 ± 3.30.5
Hypertension (N, %)297 (60)52 (73)0.03
Duration of diabetes, y8 (3–15)10 (5–15)0.3
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L8.4 ± 2.67.9 ± 2.20.14
Postprandial plasma glucose, mmol/L11.9 ± 4.112.0 ± 4.60.8
HbA1c,%7.7 ± 1.57.6 ± 1.30.7
HbA1c, mmol/mol61 ± 16.560 ± 14.30.7
Creatinine, μmol/L68.6 (61.0–83.9)76.3 (61.0–99.1)0.07
CKD (N, %)99 (20)26 (37)0.001
Proteinuria (N, %)79 (16)18 (25)0.048
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.2 ± 1.05.3 ± 1.20.9
Triglycerides, mmol/L1.5 (1.1–2.2)1.6 (1.2–2.2)0.2
Medications at enrollment
 Sulfonylureas (N, %)325 (65)47 (66)0.9
 Biguanides (N, %)264 (53)31 (44)0.14
 Thiazolidinediones (N, %)9 (2)1 (1)0.8
 Insulin (N, %)125 (25)23 (32)0.2
 ACEIs or ARBs (N, %)89 (18)18 (25)0.13
 Statins (N, %)23 (5)1 (1)0.2
Serum VAP-1, ng/mL689 (581–819)749 (601–968)0.002
 By tertile0.041
  Middle, 622–780 (%)171 (34)19 (27)
  Highest, ≥780 (%)156 (31)33 (46)

NOTE: Mean ± SD or medians (interquartile ranges) are shown. Bold values signify statistically significant estimates (P < 0.05).

Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; ACEIs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARBs, angiotensin II receptor blockers.