Table 2.

Baseline characteristics and vitamin D status according to study population (N = 12,204)

Monica10Inter99Health2006
25-OH-D, nmol/L25-OH-D, nmol/LN25-OH-D, nmol/L
NMean (SD)PbNMean (SD)PbNMean (SD)Pb
Gender
 Male1,32965.8 (28.2)3,00650.6 (25.8)1,53143.1 (21.3)
 Female1,32063.7 (25.9)0.1873,14052.6 (27.3)0.0051,87845.3 (23.5)0.0134
Age, y
 ≤4572665.9 (29.0)2,78052.1 (26.6)1,31343.2 (24.3)
 45–5574066.6 (28.2)2,42251.2 (26.3)84742.8 (20.7)
 ≥551,18362.9 (24.9)0.02594451.2 (27.3)0.2491,24946.6 (21.6)<0.001
Season, blood test
 March–May41952.3 (20.3)1,81446.3 (24.3)82140.1 (21.4)
 June–August61178.5 (30.7)1,38758.6 (32.8)75051.0 (20.9)
 September–November1,15066.7 (25.5)1,60158.8 (24.3)1,04748.4 (24.1)
 December–February46953.2 (20.7)<0.0011,34443.1 (20.1)<0.00179137.1 (20.1)<0.001
Level of educationa
 Basic67760.3 (25.3)91851.2 (27.3)44546.6 (24.1)
 Above basic1,97166.3 (27.5)<0.0015,03351.8 (26.4)0.2582,91344.0 (22.3)0.054
BMI, kg/m2
 <18.52662.7 (28.9)6653.5 (27.4)6243.7 (25.3)
 18.5–24.91,20267.2 (28.3)2,62153.5 (27.3)1,57047.0 (23.6)
 25–29.91,00864.8 (26.2)2,39651.5 (25.9)1,23843.7 (21.8)
 ≥3041357.5 (24.2)<0.0011,05947.1 (25.9)<0.00153738.1 (19.2)<0.001
Physical activity
 Sedentary55059.7 (27.7)1,24348.4 (25.3)61139.7 (23.3)
 Light1,47863.7 (26.1)3,77951.8 (26.6)2,05344.1 (21.4)
 Moderate/vigorous57372.5 (27.8)<0.0011,01655.1 (27.8)<0.00170749.0 (23.9)<0.001
Fish, weekly intake
 <Twice2,11964.9 (27.5)3,45451.3 (26.6)68844.4 (26.1)
 ≥Twice34468.1 (25.3)0.0092,67052.0 (26.6)0.3532,67844.4 (22.1)0.739
Smoking, g/d
 Never smoker69365.7 (26.6)2,14752.7 (26.5)1,40942.5 (21.1)
 Former smoker72767.4 (25.4)1,57253.8 (27.1)1,10243.3 (20.5)
 Current smoker, <1549464.6 (27.8)63350.8 (25.4)30848.8 (23.8)
 Current smoker, <2555362.3 (28.4)1,11648.2 (26.0)34048.6 (27.1)
 Current smoker, ≥2515057.9 (28.4)41948.2 (27.9)10847.7 (30.0)
 Occasional smokers2459.7 (27.1)<0.00121850.6 (24.5)<0.00110949.3 (28.0)<0.001
Alcohol, drinks/wk
 035859.5 (25.9)54650.0 (29.0)19940.1 (24.0)
 ≤71,09963.7 (25.6)2,66152.1 (26.7)1,49442.7 (21.5)
 ≤1457269.6 (26.3)1,29852.2 (25.1)70547.1 (21.8)
 >1459965.6 (30.3)<0.0011,43051.0 (26.6)0.02470548.3 (23.0)<0.001
History of cancer
 No2,51864.5 (27.0)5,98951.6 (26.6)3,22644.3 (22.6)
 Yes13169.1 (28.4)0.06315750.9 (27.3)0.67518345.2 (22.6)0.577
  • aEducation beyond basic.

  • bKruskal–Wallis test.