Table 3.

Multivariate modeling performed in included studies

First authorEMT markers examinedType of regressionAdjustment covariates
Bates et al. (45)Integrin α-v-β-6CoxAge, sex, tumor type (colon vs. rectal), tumor stage
Bellovin et al. (34)E-cadherinCoxAge, sex, tumor stage, lymph node status
Bellovin et al. (35)E-cadherinCoxAge, sex, tumor stage, lymph node status
Fan et al. (20)E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Twist, Snail, β-cateninLogisticSupport vector machine, tumor stage, CEA, CA19-9, CA125
Fan et al. (36)E-cadherin, Twist, SnailLogisticAge, sex, histologic grade, tumor class
Fujikawa et al. (37)E-cadherinCoxAge, pathologic T category, lymph node metastasis
Gomez et al. (48)Twist, Slug (RNA only for both)CoxAge, sex, lymph node metastasis status, tumor stage, treatment protocol (e.g., chemo vs. surgery)
Harbaum et al. (30)Cytokeratin-7, E-cadherinCoxAge, sex, T classification, N classification, tumor grade
Kahlert et al. (50)ZEB2CoxAge, sex, tumor stage, grade, type of resection (curative vs. noncurative), microsatellite stability, KRAS mutation status
Kevans et al. (23)E-cadherin, β-cateninCoxAge, sex, T-stage, tumor site, tumor differentiation, tumor budding, lymphovascular invasion, neural invasion, microsatellite status
Khanh et al. (26)Cytokeratin, TGFβCoxTumor grade, tumor depth, node status
Knosel et al. (29)CytokeratinsCoxNot listed
Knosel et al. (38)E-cadherinCoxPathologic stage, venous invasion, PITX1 expression
Koelzer et al. (31)E-cadherinCoxT-stage, M-stage, N-stage, postoperative therapy
Kroepil et al. (39)E-cadherin, SnailCoxAge, sex, T-stage, N-stage, tumor grade
Meng et al. (47)miRNACoxTumor size, CEA, histologic grade
Mesker et al. (24)TGFβ, β-cateninCoxNo adjustment covariates reported
Saito et al. (41)E-cadherin, vimentinCoxAge, sex, location (colon vs. rectal), tumor size, histological type, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, invasion of primary tumor, lymph node metastasis
Shioiri et al. (42)E-cadherin, SlugCoxAge, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, vessel invasion
Spaderna et al. (27)E-cadherin, β-catenin, ZEB1, vimentinCoxNot listed
Yu et al. (44)E-cadherin, Twist2CoxAge, sex, T-stage, N-stage, M-stage, tumor differentiation, vascular invasion, tumor location, CEA level
Zlobec (28)CytokeratinCoxTumor budding, TNM stage, tumor grade, KRAS status, BRAF status, MGMT status, microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator status

Abbreviations: TNM, tumor–node–metastasis; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen.