Table 1.

Characteristics of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors in a nested case–control analysis of IGFI receptor status, carbohydrate intake, and breast cancer recurrence

Case statusIGFI receptor status of breast tumor tissue
OverallControlCaseNegativePositive
CharacteristicN = 265N = 174 (65.7%)N = 91 (34.3%)N = 132 (49.8%)N = 133 (50.2%)
Age at diagnosis, y (mean, SD)b
Non-Hispanic White221 (83.4%)144 (82.8%)77 (84.6%)116 (87.9%)105 (79.0%)
College graduates115 (43.4%)76 (43.7%)39 (42.9%)62 (47.0%)53 (39.9%)
BMI, kg/m2 (mean, SD)28.7 (6.2)28.7 (6.2)28.6 (6.2)28.4 (6.5)29.0 (5.9)
Physical activity, METs (mean, SD)12.3 (12.2)12.2 (11.9)12.4 (12.9)13.0 (13.0)11.6 (11.4)
Carbohydrate intake, g (mean, SD)
 Baseline243 (60.4)aa246 (58.6)240 (62.2)
 Change (year 1 – baseline)−32 (59.0)aa−31.4 (59.2)−31.7 (58.9)
Years from diagnosis to study enrollment (mean, SD)b1.9 (1.0)2.0 (1.0)1.9 (1.0)1.9 (0.9)2.0 (1.0)
Stage of primary cancerb
 I66 (24.9%)43 (24.7%)23 (25.3%)28 (21.2%)38 (28.6%)
 II175 (66.0%)115 (66.1%)60 (65.9%)90 (68.2%)85 (63.9%)
 IIIA24 (9.1%)16 (9.2%)8 (8.8%)14 (10.6%)10 (7.5%)
Number of positive nodes
 0122 (46.0%)86 (49.4%)36 (39.6%)55 (41.7%)67 (50.4%)
 1—376 (28.7%)53 (30.5%)23 (25.3%)40 (30.3%)36 (27.1%)
 >367 (25.3%)35 (20.1%)32 (35.2%)37 (28.0%)30 (22.6%)
Estrogen receptor positive190 (72.8%)121 (70.8%)69 (76.7%)67 (51.2%)88 (69.3%)
Progesterone receptor positive155 (60.1%)97 (57.7%)58 (64.4%)103 (78.0%)82 (62.1%)
Chemotherapy185 (70.1%)121 (70.8%)69 (76.7%)103 (78.0%)82 (62.1%)
Radiation therapy168 (63.4%)97 (57.7%)58 (64.4%)88 (66.7%)80 (60.2%)
Ever tamoxifen use199 (75.1%)121 (70.8%)69 (76.7%)93 (70.5%)106 (79.7%)

NOTE: P < 0.05 for differences in number of positive nodes by case–control status and for differences in progesterone receptor status and chemotherapy by IGFI receptor status.

Abbreviation: METs, metabolic equivalent hours per week.

  • aAs detailed in the Materials and Methods, cases were counter matched on decreased versus stable/increased carbohydrate intake to increase power to detect an interaction. Therefore, baseline intake for cases [254 (56.4)] versus controls [222 (62.3)] and change in intake among cases [−46.1 (54.3)] versus controls [−3.7 (57.8)] are a function of the study design.

  • bMatching factor.