Table 4.

Association between vitamin D quartiles and incidence of specific types of cancer

Model 1bModel 2c
Events (individuals)HR (95% CI), PHR (95% CI), P
All cancers1,134 (10,709)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea0.98 (0.83–1.16)1.00 (0.84–1.18)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea0.99 (0.84–1.17)1.01 (0.85–1.20)
 4th vitamin D quartilea1.06 (0.90–1.25), Ptrend = 0.4511.10 (0.93–1.29), Ptrend = 0.285
All cancers excluding NMSC860 (10,866)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea0.90 (0.74–1.08)0.93 (0.77–1.12)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea0.90 (0.74–1.09)0.95 (0.78–1.15)
 4th vitamin D quartilea0.91 (0.75–1.10), Ptrend = 0.3560.98 (0.81–1.19), Ptrend = 0.898
Head and neck cancer38 (11,130)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea0.41 (0.17–0.99)0.47 (0.19–1.15)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea0.60 (0.27–1.32)0.79 (0.35–1.77)
 4th vitamin D quartilea0.31 (0.11–0.84), Ptrend = 0.0290.45 (0.16–1.26), Ptrend = 0.198
Colorectal cancer141 (11,119)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea0.83 (0.52–1.34)0.84 (0.52–1.35)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea1.05 (0.67–1.64)1.04 (0.66–1.64)
 4th vitamin D quartilea0.82 (0.51–1.32), Ptrend = 0.6510.82 (0.51–1.35), Ptrend = 0.666
Cancer, bronchus, and lung110 (11,133)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea1.08 (0.66–1.76)1.27 (0.77–2.08)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea0.82 (0.49–1.39)1.10 (0.65–1.87)
 4th vitamin D quartilea0.63 (0.36–1.11), Ptrend = 0.0680.91 (0.51–1.62), Ptrend = 0.700
Breast cancer159 (5606)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea1.04 (0.67–1.62)1.06 (0.68–1.64)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea0.87 (0.55–1.37)0.90 (0.57–1.43)
 4th vitamin D quartilea1.05 (0.68–1.61), Ptrend = 0.9841.11 (0.71–1.71), Ptrend = 0.821
Cancer of the uterus25 (5670)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea1.42 (0.32–6.37)1.37 (0.31–6.17)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea3.06 (0.83–11.29)2.67 (0.71–10.00)
 4th vitamin D quartilea2.86 (0.77–10.57), Ptrend = 0.0592.32 (0.62–8.75), Ptrend = 0.145
Prostate cancer121 (5,451)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea0.74 (0.44–1.25)0.72 (0.42–1.22)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea0.99 (0.60–1.62)0.96 (0.58–1.59)
 4th vitamin D quartilea0.93 (0.56–1.53), Ptrend = 0.9200.91 (0.54–1.52), Ptrend = 0.982
Cancer, urinary organs46 (11,124)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea1.57 (0.66–3.76)1.69 (0.70–4.07)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea1.48 (0.61–3.57)1.60 (0.65–3.90)
 4th vitamin D quartilea1.24 (0.50–3.10), Ptrend = 0.7521.47 (0.58–3.75), Ptrend = 0.508
NMSC369 (10,972)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea1.21 (0.88–1.65)1.18 (0.86–1.61)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea1.42 (1.05–1.93)1.35 (0.99–1.83)
 4th vitamin D quartilea1.53 (1.14–2.07), Ptrend = 0.0031.43 (1.05–1.93), Ptrend = 0.015
Malignant melanoma55 (11,100)
 2nd vitamin D quartilea0.56 (0.22–1.43)0.52 (0.21–1.33)
 3rd vitamin D quartilea1.42 (0.69–2.96)1.24 (0.60–2.60)
 4th vitamin D quartilea1.42 (0.68–2.95), Ptrend = 0.1101.18 (0.56–2.48), Ptrend = 0.275
  • aThe 1st quartile is used as the reference. The number of events (n) and number of persons (N) in each quartile (nq1/, Nq1, nq2/Nq2, nq3/Nq3, nq4/Nq4) was: for all cancers (272/2,666, 281/2,693, 278/2,684, 303/2,666), all cancers excluding NMSC (221/2,695, 213/2,737, 210/2,722, 216/2,712), head and neck cancer (16/2,768, 7/2,792, 10/2,799, 5/2,771), colorectal cancer (36/2,765, 33/2,789, 40/2,792, 32/2,773), cancer of bronchus and lung (30/2,771, 34/2,791, 26/2,799, 20/2,772), breast cancer (40/1,393, 40/1,320, 35/1,398, 44/1,495), cancer of the uterus (3/1,409, 4/1,331, 9/1,417, 9/1,513), prostate cancer (30/1,358, 26/1,455, 33/1,377, 32/1,261), cancer of the urinary organs (8/2,765, 14/2,791, 13/2,797, 11/2,771), NMSC (70/2,740, 87/2,747, 102/2,762, 110/2,723), and malignant melanoma (12/2,761, 7/2,784, 18/2,795, 18/2,760).

  • bAdjusted for study and gender.

  • cFurther adjusted for education, season, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol intake, intake of fish, and BMI.