Table 2.

Circulating tocopherols and lycopene before diagnosis and risk of lethal prostate cancer among men initially diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the HPFS and PHS

Batch-specific quartiles
Q1Q2Q3Q4P trenda
α-tocopherol
 Median α-tocopherol, mg/L7.810.212.618.1
 Events/person-years36/2,75244/2,81021/2,89529/2,761
 Model 1 HR (95% CI)b1.0 (ref.)1.16 (0.74–1.81)0.52 (0.30–0.89)0.67 (0.40–1.13)0.02
 Model 2 HR (95% CI)c1.0 (ref.)1.16 (0.74–1.81)0.51 (0.30–0.89)0.68 (0.41–1.13)0.02
 Model 3 HR (95% CI)d1.0 (ref.)1.08 (0.69–1.70)0.50 (0.29–0.88)0.68 (0.40–1.14)0.02
γ-tocopherol
 Median γ-tocopherol, mg/L0.81.52.03.0
 Events/person-years25/2,66432/2,81243/2,83930/2,878
 Model 1 HR (95% CI)b1.0 (ref.)1.25 (0.74–2.11)1.75 (1.07–2.88)1.15 (0.67–1.98)0.37
 Model 2 HR (95% CI)c1.0 (ref.)1.26 (0.74–2.12)1.74 (1.06–2.87)1.09 (0.63–1.88)0.49
 Model 3 HR (95% CI)c1.0 (ref.)1.24 (0.73–2.10)1.53 (0.93–2.52)0.99 (0.56–1.72)0.84
Lycopene
 Median lycopene, ng/mL200328451626
 Events/person-years31/2,69037/2,87032/2,84732/2,944
 Model 1 HR (95% CI)b1.0 (ref.)1.07 (0.66–1.73)0.98 (0.60–1.62)1.00 (0.60–1.66)0.91
 Model 2 HR (95% CI)c1.0 (ref.)1.06 (0.65–1.71)0.99 (0.60–1.63)1.01 (0.61–1.69)0.97
 Model 3 HR (95% CI)c1.0 (ref.)1.17 (0.72–1.91)1.23 (0.74–2.05)1.21 (0.72–2.03)0.46
  • aP trend calculated by modeling the quartile ordinal score (0, 1, 2, 3) as a continuous variable.

  • bAdjusted for age at diagnosis (continuous), circulating cholesterol (batch-specific quartiles), cohort (HPFS vs. PHS), and time between blood draw and diagnosis (continuous).

  • cAdjusted for above variables plus baseline BMI (<25, 25–29.9, and ≥30 kg/m2) and smoking status (never, quit 10+ y, quit <10 y, and current).

  • dAdjusted for above variables plus Gleason sum (2–6, 7, 8–10, missing), PSA at diagnosis (tertiles and an indicator for missing), and clinical T stage (T1/T2 vs. T3).