Table 2.

Baseline characteristics stratified by serum VAP-1 tertile in people with type II diabetes

Serum VAP-1 tertile (ng/mL)<622622–780≥780P
N189190189
Incident cancer (N, %)19 (10)19 (10)33 (17)a,b0.041
Age, y60 ± 962 ± 10a64 ± 9a,b0.0001
Female (N, %)82 (43)96 (51)109 (58)a0.02
Smoking (N, %)41 (22)34 (18)23 (12)a0.048
BMI, kg/m224.8 ± 3.024.8 ± 3.224.4 ± 3.70.4
Hypertension (N, %)114 (60)119 (63)116 (61)0.9
Duration of diabetes, y5 (2–12)8 (4–13)a11 (6–18)a,b<0.0001
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L7.7 ± 1.98.3 ± 2.3a9.0 ± 2.9a,b<0.0001
Postprandial plasma glucose, mmol/L11.2 ± 3.611.5 ± 3.513.0 ± 4.8a,b0.0008
HbA1c,%7.1 ± 1.37.7 ± 1.3a8.2 ± 1.6a,b<0.0001
HbA1c, mmol/mol54 ± 14.361 ± 14.3a66 ± 17.6a,b<0.0001
Creatinine, μmol/L68.6 (61.0–83.9)68.6 (61.0–83.9)68.6 (61.0–91.5)a,b0.016
Proteinuria (N, %)20 (11)22 (12)55 (29)a,b<0.0001
CKD (N, %)27 (14)35 (18)63 (33)a,b<0.0001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.1 ± 0.95.4 ± 1.0a5.3 ± 1.1a0.007
Triglycerides, mmol/L1.5 (1.2–2.3)1.7 (1.2–2.2)1.4 (1.0–2.1)0.16
Medication at enrollment
 Sulfonylureas (N, %)133 (70)132 (69)107 (57)a,b0.007
 Biguanides (N, %)105 (56)108 (57)82 (43)a,b0.015
 Thiazolidinediones (N, %)1 (1)4 (2)5 (3)0.3
 Insulin (N, %)27 (14)36 (19)85 (45)a,b<0.0001
 ACEIs or ARBs (N, %)32 (17)39 (21)36 (19)0.7
 Statins (N, %)4 (2)13 (7)a7 (4)0.067

NOTE: Mean ± SD or medians (interquartile ranges) are shown. Bold values signify statistically significant estimates (P < 0.05).

Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; ACEIs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARBs, angiotensin II receptor blockers.

  • aP < 0.05 versus first tertile (serum VAP-1 <622 ng/mL).

  • bP < 0.05 vs. second tertile (serum VAP-1 622–780 ng/mL).