Table 1.

General characteristics, levels of urinary PAH metabolites, plasma BPDE-Alb adducts, and genetic damage of the workers in control and exposed groups

VariablesControl groupe (n = 497)Low-exposure groupe (n = 628)High-exposure groupe (n = 432)P
General characteristics
 Age (y; mean ± SD)42.48 ± 8.0441.76 ± 8.9542.22 ± 7.780.342a
 Gender (% female)22.713.26.5<0.001b
 Years worked (y; mean ± SD)21.32 ± 9.1920.26 ± 10.7120.88 ± 9.220.197a
 Smoking (smoking/quit/never), %50/3.4/46.655.5/4.9/39.666.2/3.7/30.10.001b
 Pack-years (mean ± SD)10.83 ± 14.3310.87 ± 15.0113.40 ± 15.350.010a
 Drinking (drinking/quit/never), %29.4/3.2/67.433.0/1.8/65.238.3/1.4/60.30.020b
 BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD)23.72 ± 3.1423.81 ± 3.6423.37 ± 4.390.160a
PAH metabolites [μg/mmol creatinine, median (5%–95%)]
 1-hydroxynaphthalene1.25 (0.34–5.12)1.61 (0.48–7.43)2.27 (0.66–8.42)<0.001c
 2-hydroxynaphthalene1.26 (0.23–4.18)1.49 (0.40–5.39)2.29 (0.61–7.24)<0.001c
 2-hydroxyfluorene0.71 (0.27–2.06)0.92 (0.33–3.92)1.12 (0.31–4.28)<0.001c
 9-hydroxyfluorene0.48 (0.01–4.71)0.58 (0.01–4.50)0.63 (0.01–3.71)0.045c
 1-hydroxyphenanthrene0.75 (0.07–4.23)0.83 (0.10–3.34)1.15 (0.24–4.67)<0.001c
 2-hydroxyphenanthrene0.25 (0.04–1.22)0.31 (0.05–1.23)0.38 (0.09–1.64)<0.001c
 3-hydroxyphenanthrene0.29 (0.03–1.15)0.36 (0.04–1.56)0.47 (0.04–2.11)<0.001c
 4-hydroxyphenanthrene0.37 (0.003–2.13)0.32 (0.004–2.21)0.30 (0.003–1.98)0.332c
 9-hydroxyphenanthrene0.62 (0.14–3.71)0.74 (0.17–4.20)0.86 (0.21–3.88)<0.001c
 1-hydroxypyrene2.54 (0.65–13.14)3.23 (0.91–13.11)4.22 (1.22–17.86)<0.001c
 ΣOH-PAHs10.00 (3.62–36.08)11.65 (4.74–40.03)14.78 (5.58–50.35)<0.001c
BPDE-Alb adducts [ng/mg albumin, median (5%–95%)]3.93 (3.09–5.76)4.30 (1.75–7.39)4.73 (1.75–9.95)<0.001c
Genetic damage biomarkers (mean ± SD)Ptrend
 8-OHdG (nmol/mmol creatinine)4.47 ± 1.264.62 ± 1.134.83 ± 1.05<0.001d
 MN frequency (%)3.69 ± 2.703.78 ± 3.024.02 ± 2.57<0.001d
  • aOne-way ANOVA for differences among the different groups.

  • bχ2 tests for differences in the distribution frequencies among different groups.

  • cThe Kruskal–Wallis test for differences among different groups for nonnormal variables.

  • dMultivariate linear regression and the poisson log-linear model for the trend of 8-OHdG and MN frequency, respectively, with adjustment for age, gender, BMI, smoking, and drinking.

  • eControl group, workers worked in logistics departments and offices; low-exposure group, workers worked in adjunct workplaces; high-exposure group, workers worked at the top, side, and bottom of coke ovens.