Table 2.

Volatile breath biomarkers measured with GC-MS in patients with MPM and lung cancer

VOCControls (n)MPM (n)Lung cancer (n)MethodSampleRef.
Acetophenone1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
NANASPME + GC-TOF-MSUrine (mice) + in vitro(48)
3165SPME-GC-MSBreath(56)
3165SPME-GC-MSBreath(58)
Benzene, trimethyl-1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
26 COPD/85 Healthy36SPME-GC-MSBreath(57)
5036SPME-GC-MSBreath(50)
Cyclohexane48 (NH)60TD-GC-MSBreath(54)
1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
Cyclohexane, methyl-1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
Cyclopentane1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
Decane48 (NH)60TD-GC-MSBreath(54)
1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
26 COPD/85 Healthy36SPME-GC-MSBreath(57)
3165SPME-GC-MSBreath(58)
1329SPME-GC-MSBreath + in vitro(55)
Dodecane1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
50TD-GC-MSBreath(21)
2230SPME-GC-MSBreath(51)
Heptane1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
26 COPD/85 Healthy36SPME-GC-MSBreath(57)
3165SPME-GC-MSBreath(58)
5036SPME-GC-MSBreath(50)
Heptane, 2,4-dimethyl-48 (NH)60TD-GC-MSBreath(54)
1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
3165SPME-GC-MSBreath(58)
NANATD-GC-MSIn vitro(52)
1-Hexanol, 2-ethyl-1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
2020SPME + GC-TOF-MSUrine(49)
Limonene1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
50TD-GC-MSBreath(21)
3165SPME-GC-MSBreath(58)
Nonane, dimethyl-1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
Octane, 3-methyl-48 (NH)60TD-GC-MSBreath(54)
1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
1,2-Pentadiene1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
α-Pinene1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
Styrene48 (NH)60TD-GC-MSBreath(54)
1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
50TD-GC-MSBreath(21)
26 COPD/85 Healthy36SPME-GC-MSBreath(57)
3165SPME-GC-MSBreath(58)
1329SPME-GC-MSBreath + in vitro(55)
5036SPME-GC-MSBreath(50)
Toluene1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
26 COPD/85 Healthy36SPME-GC-MSBreath(57)
3165SPME-GC-MSBreath(58)
2230SPME-GC-MSBreath(51)
5036SPME-GC-MSBreath(50)
67115SPME-GC-MSBreath + in vitro(53)
Xylene1313TD-GC-MSBreath(47)
26 COPD/85 Healthy36SPME-GC-MSBreath(57)
3165SPME-GC-MSBreath(58)
5036SPME-GC-MSBreath(50)
67115SPME-GC-MSBreath + in vitro(53)

Abbreviations: COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NA, not applicable; NH, nonhealthy; SMPE, solid phase microextraction; TD, thermal desorption; TOF, time-of-flight.