Table 2.

Multivariablea HRs and 95% CIs for risk of thyroid cancer across quintiles of intake of dietary flavonoids in the NIH–AARP Diet and Health Study (1995–1996)

Sex-specific quintile of intake
12345PTrend
Flavan, 3, ols (catechins)
 Median intake (range)b8.58 (0.00–17.16)22.86 (13.67–42.29)50.97 (30.36–95.52)118.53 (64.28–233.71)330.58 (161.89–7205.21)
 Cases/person-years144/885,594108/896,345112/897,558123/897,25799/899,310
 HR (95% CI)ref0.75 (0.59, 0.97)0.77 (0.60, 0.99)0.83 (0.65, 1.06)0.66 (0.51, 0.85)0.01
Flavanones
 Median intake (range)b2.65 (0.00–5.96)8.95 (4.96–14.93)18.56 (12.66–26.49)30.58 (22.60–42.85)45.95 (28.70–378.26)
 Cases/person-years89/890,426118/898,920112/896,547129/895,703138/894,468
 HR (95% CI)ref1.30 (0.99, 1.72)1.23 (0.93, 1.63)1.40 (1.06, 1.84)1.46 (1.11, 1.91)0.01
Flavonols
 Median intake (range)b4.66 (0.08–6.70)7.15 (5.64–9.37)9.56 (7.74–12.64)12.94 (10.13–18.39)21.15 (14.02–250.53)
 Cases/person-years133/883,545116/895,302109/897,710114/899,931114/899,577
 HR (95% CI)Ref0.85 (0.66, 1.10)0.80 (0.62, 1.03)0.83 (0.64, 1.07)0.81 (0.63, 1.04)0.11
Anthocyanidins
 Median intake (range)b2.12 (0.00–4.06)4.25 (2.83–6.45)6.36 (4.65–9.10)9.20 (6.74–13.24)15.16 (9.98–128.04)
 Cases/person-years108/886,900110/894,085120/896,822121/899,066127/899,191
 HR (95% CI)ref0.96 (0.73, 1.25)1.03 (0.79, 1.33)1.03 (0.79, 1.34)1.09 (0.84, 1.42)0.39
Flavones
 Median intake (range)b0.18 (0.00–0.35)0.37 (0.24–0.58)0.58 (0.41–0.88)0.90 (0.63–1.34)1.57 (1.00–19.10)
 Cases/person-years97/886,466122/897,193108/896,938133/898,630126/896,836
 HR (95% CI)Ref1.20 (0.82, 1.57)1.06 (0.80, 1.39)1.31 (1.00, 1.72)1.27 (0.96, 1.66)0.07
Isoflavones
 Median intake (range)b0.10 (0.00–0.17)0.19 (0.13–0.26)0.28 (0.21–0.38)0.40 (0.30–0.57)0.67 (0.45–5.29)
 Cases/person-years119/889,405107/893,821137/895,18696/898,826127/898,826
 HR (95% CI)Ref0.87 (0.67, 1.13)1.09 (0.85, 1.40)0.75 (0.57, 0.99)0.98 (0.76, 1.26)0.57
Total flavonoids
 Median intake (range)b34.29 (0.41–58.35)65.14 (46.04–95.93)101.56 (73.79–154.15)171.15 (114.27–291.69)387.33 (209.29–7521.44)
 Cases/person-years113/886,982125/895,707120/896,406125/897,416103/899,553
 HR (95% CI)ref1.08 (0.84, 1.40)1.02 (0.79, 1.32)1.05 (0.81, 1.36)0.85 (0.65, 1.11)0.24
  • aAdjusted for sex (male and female), total caloric intake (continuous), smoking status (current, former, and never), education level (less than 12 years, high school graduate, some college, college graduate, and missing), alcohol intake (0–<0.05, 0.05–<0.5, 0.5–<1, 1+ drinks per day), race (white, black, other, and missing), body mass index (<25, 25–<30, 30–<35, 35+ kg/m2), family history of cancer (no, yes, and missing).

  • bmg/1,000 cal, adjusted for total caloric intake using the density method.