Table 3.

Overview of breath analyzing techniques for volatile compounds

GC-MSeNoseIMSCanine scent
▪ Sensitive (ppm-ppt)▪ No Specific VOC identification▪ Sensitive (ppb-ppt)▪ Time consuming (dog training)
▪ Identification, detection, quantification of VOCs▪ Black box▪ VOC identification possible with MCC column▪ No quantification/identification of VOCs
▪ Vacuum conditions▪ Ambient conditions▪ Ambient conditions▪ Ambient conditions
▪ Slow▪ Fast, easy▪ Fast, easy▪ Fast, easy
Offline samplingOffline samplingOnline samplingOnline sampling
▪ Large, immovable set-up▪ Transportable▪ Transportable▪ Transportable
▪ Very expensive▪ Cheap▪ Cheap▪ Expensive
▪ Specific technician training▪ No specific operator training▪ No specific operator training▪ No specific operator training
▪ Gold standard

Abbreviations: ppb, parts per billion by volume; ppm, parts per million by volume; ppt, parts per trillion by volume.