Table 4.

Correlations between self-reported water pipe use and time of exposure and changes in biomarkersa

COTΔ1COTΔ2NICΔ1NICΔ2NNALΔ1NNALΔ22HPMAΔ13HPMAΔ1AAMAΔ1CNEMAΔ1MHBMAΔ1HEMAΔ1PMAΔ1
Time in bar0.160.140.050.210.110.040.27b−0.28b0.130.050.180.030.07
Smoking duration0.090.150.130.41c0.100.050.22−0.10−0.02−0.060.15-0.080.01
Number of bowls0.27b0.180.170.110.100.080.05−0.180.210.190.130.100.19
Bowls per user0.35c0.28b0.100.080.180.140.12−0.150.220.240.000.020.23
Prior SHS0.210.250.020.220.210.26b−0.060.040.200.160.070.200.22
  • aAll subjects included in the analysis; COT, cotinine; NIC, nicotine; NNAL, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol; VOC mercapturic acid metabolites (parent compound in parenthesis): 2HPMA, 2-hydroxypropyl (propylene oxide); 3-HPMA, 3-hydroxypropyl (acrolein); AAMA, 2-carbamoylethyl (acrylamide); CNEMA, cyanoethyl (acrylonitrile); MHBMA, 2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl or isomer(s) (1,3-butadiene); HEMA, 2-hydroxyethyl (ethylene oxide); PMA, phenyl (benzene); Δ1, postexposure minus preexposure; Δ2, next day minus preexposure; VOC mercapturic acid metabolites were only measured in preexposure and postexposure samples.

  • bP < 0.05.

  • cP < 0.01.