Table 4.

Correlations between self-reported water pipe use and time of exposure and changes in biomarkersa

Time in bar0.−0.28b0.
Smoking duration0.−0.10−0.02−0.060.15-0.080.01
Number of bowls0.27b0.−
Bowls per user0.35c0.28b0.−
Prior SHS0.−
  • aAll subjects included in the analysis; COT, cotinine; NIC, nicotine; NNAL, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol; VOC mercapturic acid metabolites (parent compound in parenthesis): 2HPMA, 2-hydroxypropyl (propylene oxide); 3-HPMA, 3-hydroxypropyl (acrolein); AAMA, 2-carbamoylethyl (acrylamide); CNEMA, cyanoethyl (acrylonitrile); MHBMA, 2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl or isomer(s) (1,3-butadiene); HEMA, 2-hydroxyethyl (ethylene oxide); PMA, phenyl (benzene); Δ1, postexposure minus preexposure; Δ2, next day minus preexposure; VOC mercapturic acid metabolites were only measured in preexposure and postexposure samples.

  • bP < 0.05.

  • cP < 0.01.