Table 1.

Association of circulating 25-OHD levels with prognosis among patients with breast cancer

Reference, countryDesignNumber/eventsaAge (y)Type25-OHD, nmol/LRR/ORd (95% CI)P-value/trendConfounders
Overall survival
Villasenor et al. (17), United StatesCohort of cancer patients585/11018–64In situ, stages I–IIIA diseasePer 25 nmol/L increase0.85 (0.68–1.09)0.20Age, tumor stage, BMI, race, study site, tamoxifen use, season of blood draw, treatment, smoking, physical activity
Hatse et al. (19), BelgiumCohort of cancer patients1,800/13422–94Early and invasivePer 25 nmol/L increase>74.9 vs. ≤74.90.79 (0.65–0.95)0.53 (0.33–0.86)0.0100.010BMI, age, tumor size, lymph node involvement, grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status
Jacobs et al. (20), United StatesNested case-control250 matchedpairs18–70Stages I–IIIA<49.9≥ 49.91.13 (0.72–1.79)1.0 (Ref.)0.59BMI, ethnicity, intervention group, calcium intake, grade
Tretli et al. (15)Cohort of cancer251/9836–75Unspecified<461.0 (Ref.)Sex, age at diagnosis, season
Norwaypatients46–610.55 (0.32–0.95)of blood sampling
62–810.41 (0.23–0.74)
>810.37 (0.21–0.67)<0.01
Vrieling et al. (18), GermanyCohort of cancer patients1,265/17450–74In situ, stages I–IVPer 10 nmol/L decrease<3535–55>551.08 (1.00–1.17)1.55 (1.00–2.39)0.72 (0.45–1.17)1.0 (Ref.)0.07Tumor size, nodal status, metastases, tumor grade, ER/PR status, diabetes, detection mode
Goodwin et al. (16), CanadaCohort of cancer patients512/106≤75Early stage<50≥50–72>721.60 (0.96–2.64)0.98 (0.57–1.69)1.00 (Ref.)0.05Age, tumor stage, nodal stage, estrogen receptor status, grade
Breast cancer–specific survival
Villasenor et al. (17), United StatesCohort of cancer patients585/4818–64In situ, stages I–IIIA diseasePer 25 nmol/L increase1.08 (0.75–1.54)0.68Age, tumor stage, BMI, race-ethnicity/study site, tamoxifen use, season of blood draw, treatment used
<49.91.0 (Ref.)
49.9–74.91.12 (0.54–2.33)
>74.91.21 (0.52–2.80)
Hatse et al. (19), BelgiumCohort of cancer patients1,800/6422–94Early, invasivePer 25nmol/L increase0.79 (0.62–1.00)0.049BMI, age, tumor size, grade, ER status
All women>74.9 vs. ≤74.90.49 (0.27–0.89)0.019
Premenopause>74.9 vs. ≤74.90.93 (0.43–2.02)0.853
Postmenopause>74.9 vs. ≤74.90.15 (0.03–0.63)0.009
Tretli et al. (15), NorwayCohort of cancer patients251/8236–75Unspecified<5051–6768–86>861.0 (Ref.)0.47 (0.26–0.85)0.53 (0.29–0.95)0.42 (0.21–0.82)0.01Age, sex, season of blood sampling
Other outcomes
Recurrence/relapse
Jacobs et al. (20), United StatesNested case-control512 matched pairs18–70Stages I–IIIA<24.96 ≥24.96, <49.9≥49.9, <74.9≥74.91.14 (0.57–2.31)1.00 (0.68–1.48)1.05 (0.76–1.47)1.0 (Ref.)0.85BMI, ethnicity, intervention group, calcium intake, tumor grade
Hatse et al. (19), BelgiumCohort of cancer patients1,800/116c22–94Early and invasive>75 vs. ≤75, 1st year>75 vs. ≤75, 3rd year>75 vs. ≤75, 6th year1.20 (0.63–2.28)0.50 (0.29–0.85)0.25 (0.09–0.70)0.58520.01030.0082Age, BMI, tumor size, pN, grade, ER-by-time
Distant disease-free survival/interval
Hatse et al. (19), BelgiumCohort of cancer patients1,800/94PremenopausalEarly and invasive>74.9 vs. ≤74.9Not reported, no association
Vrieling et al. (18), GermanyCohort of cancer patients1,074/135b50–74 PostmenopausalIn situ, stages I–IIIA diseasePer 10 nmol/L decrease<3535–55>551.14 (1.05–1.24)2.09 (1.29–3.41)1.16 (0.70–1.94)1.0 (Ref.)0.006Tumor size, nodal status, metastases, tumor grade, ER/PR status, diabetes, detection mode
Goodwin et al. (16), CanadaCohort of cancer patients512/116c≤75Early stage<50≥50–72>721.71 (1.02–2.86)1.25 (0.73–2.14)1.0 (Ref.)0.09Age, tumor stage, nodal stage, ER, grade
Disease-free survival/interval
Hatse et al. (19), BelgiumCohort of cancer patients1,800/116cPremenopausalEarly and invasivePer 25 nmol/L increaseNot reported, no association
Postmenopausal0.74 (0.57–0.96)0.0225Age, tumor size, pN grade, ER-by-time, # positive lymph nodes, tumor grade
Kim et al. (21), KoreaCohort of cancer patients310/31b48.9 ± 10.3 (mean)Luminal<49.949.9–72.4≥ 74.93.97 (1.77–8.91)0.82 (0.28–2.37)1.0 (Ref.)0.0010.711Age, LN positivity, ER status, T stage
  • aDeaths, unless otherwise stated.

  • bMetastases.

  • cRelapse.

  • dRelative risk/odds ratio.