Table 2.

Association of circulating 25-OHD levels with prognosis among patients with colorectal cancer

Reference, countryDesignNumber/eventsaAge (y)Type25-OHD, nmol/LRR/ORf (95% CI)P-value/trendConfounders
Overall survival
Fedirko et al. (22), EuropeProspective cohort1,202/54135–70CRC<36.3b1.0 (Ref.)Age at diagnosis, sex, cancer stage, grade of tumor differentiation, primary tumor location, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, season of blood collection, diagnosis year
36.4–48.60.82 (0.63–1.07)
48.7–60.50.91 (0.70–1.18)
60.6–76.80.78 (0.59–1.03)
>76.80.67 (0.50–0.88)<0.01
1,202/541CRC<25b1.0 (Ref.)
25–500.74 (0.51–1.08)
50–750.71 (0.49–1.04)
75–1000.57 (0.37–0.89)
≥1000.53 (0.33–0.87)0.02
759/345Colon cancer<36.3b1.0 (Ref.)
36.4–48.60.83 (0.59–1.17)
48.7–60.51.01 (0.73–1.41)
60.6–76.80.90 (0.64–1.28)
>76.80.69 (0.48–1.01)0.16
443/196Rectal cancer<36.3b1.0 (Ref.)
36.4–48.60.78 (0.50–1.21)
48.7–60.50.69 (0.43–1.13)
60.6–76.80.60 (0.36–0.99)
>76.80.55 (0.35–0.88)<0.01
Ng et al. (26), United StatesCohort of cancer patients515/47526–85Stage IV CRC5.7–32.71.0 (Ref.)Age, season of blood collection, sex, baseline performance status, treatment arm, BMI, metastatic sites
32.9–49.70.78 (0.60–1.02)
49.9–67.61.13 (0.87–1.47)
67.9–188.20.94 (0.72–1.23)0.55
Tretli et al. (15), NorwayCohort of cancer patients52/3632–75Colon<461.0 (Ref.)Sex, age at diagnosis, season of blood sampling
46–610.48 (0.18–1.29)
62–810.61 (0.23–1.59)
>810.40 (0.10–1.60)0.23
Mezawa et al. (23), JapanCohort of cancer patients257/3965 (mean)CRC7.5–17.50.50 (0.16–1.54)Age, gender, month of blood sampling, cancer stage, residual tumor after surgery, time period of surgery, location of tumor, adjuvant chemotherapy, # lymph nodes with metastasis
19.96–24.960.55 (0.18–1.65)
27.5–37.41.0 (Ref.)
39.9–89.90.16 (0.04–0.63)0.009
Ng et al. (25), United StatesProspective cohort1,017/28330–75CRCQuintile 1c1.0 (ref.)Age at diagnosis, gender, cancer stage, grade of tumor differentiation, primary tumor location, diagnosis year
Quintile 21.19 (0.85–1.68)
Quintile 31.05 (0.74–1.50)
Quintile 40.63 (0.43–0.94)
Quintile 50.62 (0.42–0.93)0.002
Ng et al. (24), United StatesProspective cohort304/12330–75CRCQuartile 11.0 (Ref.)Age at diagnosis, season of blood draw, sex, cancer stage, grade of tumor differentiation, primary tumor location, diagnosis year, BMI at diagnosis, postdiagnostic physical activity
Quartile 20.81 (0.49–1.35)
Quartile 30.81 (0.48–1.37)
Quartile 40.52 (0.29–0.94)0.02
Colorectal cancer–specific survival
Fedirko et al. (22), EuropeProspective cohort1,202/44435–70CRC<36.3b1.0 (Ref.)Age at diagnosis, sex, cancer stage, grade of tumor differentiation, primary tumor location, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, season of blood collection, diagnosis year
36.4–48.60.76 (0.56–1.02)
48.7–60.50.93 (0.69–1.24)
60.6–76.80.78 (0.58–1.06)
>76.80.69 (0.50–0.93)0.04
1,202/444CRC<25b1.0 (Ref.)
25–500.73 (0.48–1.11)
50–750.72 (0.47–1.11)
75–1000.62 (0.38–1.01)
≥1000.55 (0.32–0.94)0.04
759/279Colon cancer<36.3b1.0 (Ref.)
36.4–48.60.77 (0.52–1.14)
48.7–60.51.05 (0.72–1.52)
60.6–76.80.96 (0.65–1.40)
>76.80.79 (0.53–1.19)0.61
443/165Rectal cancer<36.3b1.0 (Ref.)
36.4–48.60.72 (0.45–1.17)
48.7–60.50.65 (0.38–1.11)
60.6–76.80.53 (0.31–0.92)
>76.80.48 (0.29–0.80)<0.01
Tretli et al. (15), NorwayCohort of cancer patients52/2632–75Colon cancer<441.0 (Ref.)Sex, age at diagnosis, season of blood sampling
45–560.46 (0.15–1.48)
57–770.73 (0.25–2.15)
>770.20 (0.04–1.10)0.16
Mezawa et al. (23), JapanCohort of cancer patients257/3065 (mean)CRCPer unit increase0.98 (0.89–1.08)0.67Age at diagnosis, gender, calendar month of blood sampling, cancer stage, residual tumor after surgery, time period of surgery, location of tumor, adjuvant chemotherapy, # lymph nodes with metastasis
Ng et al. (25), United StatesProspective cohort1,017/11930–75CRCQuintile 1c1.0 (Ref.)Age at diagnosis, gender, cancer stage, grade of tumor differentiation, primary tumor location, diagnosis year
Quintile 20.99 (0.58–1.68)
Quintile 31.04 (0.61–1.78)
Quintile 40.62 (0.34–1.11)
Quintile 50.50 (0.26–0.95)0.02
Ng et al. (24), United StatesProspective cohort304/9630–75CRCQuartile 11.0 (Ref.)Age at diagnosis, season of blood draw, sex, cancer stage, grade of tumor differentiation, primary tumor location, diagnosis year, BMI at diagnosis, post diagnostic physical activity
Quartile 20.76 (0.41–1.42)
Quartile 31.04 (0.58–1.89)
Quartile 40.61 (0.31–1.19)0.23
Other outcomes
Time to progression
Ng et al. (26), United StatesCohort of cancer patients515/440d26–85Stage IV CRC5.7–32.71.0 (Ref.)Age, season of blood collection, sex, baseline performance status, treatment arm, BMI, metastatic sites
32.9–49.71.14 (0.87–1.49)
49.9–67.61.23 (0.93–1.62)
67.9–188.21.07 (0.81–1.42)0.66
Confirmed response
Ng et al. (26), United StatesCohort of cancer patients515/239e26–85Stage IV CRC5.7–32.71.0 (Ref.)Age, season of blood collection, sex, baseline performance status, treatment arm, BMI, metastatic sites
32.9–49.71.15 (0.70–1.91)
49.9–67.60.98 (0.59–1.63)
67.9–188.21.12 (0.67–1.89)0.67

Abbreviation: CRC, colorectal cancer.

  • aDeaths, unless otherwise stated.

  • bPrediagnostic 25-OHD levels.

  • cPredicted 25-OHD levels.

  • dProgression.

  • eConfirmed tumor response.

  • fRelative risk/odds ratio.