Table 4.

Association of circulating 25-OHD levels with prognosis among patients with other cancer types

Reference, countryDesignNumber/eventsaAge (y)Cancer type25-OHD, nmol/LRR/ORd (95% CI)P-value/trendConfounders
Gastric cancer
Overall survival
Ren et al. (37), ChinaRetrospective cohort of cancer patients197/10660 (mean)Gastric carcinoma<501.0 (ref)0.019Clinical stage, season of blood draw
≥500.59 (0.37–0.91)
Pancreatic cancer
Overall survival
Cho et al. (38), United StatesCohort of cancer patients178/NANAAll patients<50Not statistically significant, NANANA
≥50
Stages III and IV cancer<501.99 (1.16–3.43)0.013NA
≥501.0 (ref)
Skin cancer
Overall survival
Newton-Bishop et al. (33), United KingdomCohort of cancer patients872/141NAMelanomaPer 20 nmol/L increase0.83 (0.68–1.02)NAAge, sex, Townsend score, tumor site, Breslow thickness, BMI
Skin cancer–specific survival
Samimi et al. (34), FranceCohort of cancer patients89/1931–98Merkel cell carcinoma<505.28 (0.75–36.95)0.093Age, tumor size, time to vitamin D assessment, impaired immune function, metastasis at presentation, period of sampling
>501.0 (ref)
Recurrence-free survival
Newton-Bishop et al. (33), United KingdomCohort of cancer patients872/173bNAMelanomaPer 20 nmol/L increase0.79 (0.64–0.96)NAAge, sex, Townsend score, tumor site, Breslow thickness, BMI
≤41.31.0 (ref)
41.3–61.40.70 (0.42–1.14)
> 61.40.57 (0.33–0.97)
Nodal and/or distant metastasis
Samimi et al. (34), FranceCohort of cancer patients89/3331–98Merkel cell carcinoma<502.89 (1.03–8.13)0.043Age, tumor size, time to vitamin D assessment, impaired immune function, metastasis at presentation, period of sampling
≥501.0 (ref)
Head-and-neck cancers
Overall survival
Gugatschka et al. (35), AustriaCancer patients88 cases/NA63 (mean)Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)NA0.89 (0.83–0.97)0.006Univariable analysis
Meyer et al. (36), CanadaCohort of cancer patients522/22362.5 (mean)Overall (Stage I–II)<481.0 (ref)0.65Season of blood collection, stage, site, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI
49–630.75 (0.51–1.10)
64–780.93 (0.64–1.36)
>780.85 (0.57–1.28)
Recurrence
Meyer et al. (36), CanadaCohort of cancer patients522/119b62.5 (mean)Overall (Stage I–II)<481.0 (ref)0.56Season of blood collection, stage, site
49–630.99 (0.58–1.69)
64–781.20 (0.71–2.05)
>781.12 (0.65–1.93)
Disease-free survival
Gugatschka et al. (35), AustriaCohort of cancer patients88 cases/NA63 (mean)SCCNA0.85 (0.75–0.96)0.01Univariable analysis
Prostate cancer
Overall survival
Fang et al. (39), United StatesCohort of cancer patients1,822/595NAOverallQuartile 11.10 (0.87–1.39)0.46Age at diagnosis, BMI, physical activity, smoking, Gleason score, TNM stage, 1,25(OH)2D
Quartile 21.05 (0.83–1.34)
Quartile 31.06 (0.83–1.34)
Quartile 41.0 (ref)
Tretli et al. (40), NorwayCohort of cancer patients160/6152–82Overall<501.0 (ref)NAPatient group, age, tumor differentiation grade, patient functional status at time of blood collection
50–800.40 (0.20–0.78)
>800.24 (0.11–0.53)
97/45Among patients receiving hormone therapy<501.0 (ref)
50–800.18 (0.07–0.46)
>800.09 (0.03–0.27)
Prostate cancer–specific survival
Fang et al. (39), United StatesCohort of cancer patients1,822/202cNAOverallQuartile 11.31 (0.86–1.99)0.14Age at diagnosis, BMI, physical activity, smoking, Gleason score, TNM stage, 1,25(OH)2D
Quartile 21.32 (0.87–2.00)
Quartile 31.09 (0.70–1.70)
Quartile 41.0 (ref)
Tretli et al. (40), NorwayCohort of cancer patients160/5252–82Overall<501.0 (ref)NAPatient group, age, tumor differentiation grade, patient functional status at time of blood collection
50–800.33 (0.14–0.77)
>800.16 (0.05–0.43)
Hematologic cancers
Overall survival
Lymphoma
Tretli et al. (15), NorwayCohort of cancer patients145/7537–79Overall<461.0 (ref)<0.01Sex, age at diagnosis, season of blood sampling
46–610.59 (0.32–1.11)
62–810.46 (0.25–0.86)
>810.33 (0.16–0.69)
Drake et al. (30), United StatesCohort of cancer patients370/10019–94Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma>62.51.0 (ref)0.003International Prognostic Index (IPI), immunochemotherapy vs. all other therapy
<62.51.99 (1.27–3.13)
70/29T-cell lymphoma>62.51.0 (ref)0.04International Prognostic Index
<62.52.38 (1.04–5.41)
71/19Mantle cell lymphoma>62.51.0 (ref)0.53Mantle Cell International Prognostic Index (MCIPI)
<62.51.35 (0.53–3.39)
285/19Follicular lymphoma (FL)>62.51.0 (ref)0.38FLIPI, FL grade 3, rituximab-based therapy, chemotherapy vs. none
<62.51.52 (0.60–3.88)
109/8Post-FL (marginal zone and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma)>62.51.0 (ref)0.2Stage, performance status
<62.52.76 (0.58–13.1)
78/18Others>62.51.0 (ref)0.14Stage, performance status
<62.52.08 (0.79–5.49)
Leukemia
Pardanani et al. (31), United StatesCohort of cancer patients247/12914–83Primary myelofibrosis<62.41.2 (0.8–1.6)(NA)Disease-specific prognostic variables
<24.961.2 (0.7–2.1)
74/4244–89De novo myelodysplastic syndromes<62.41.4 (0.7–2.7)NADisease-specific prognostic variables
Shanafelt et al. (32), United StatesDiscovery cohort390/3463 (median)Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)<62.42.39 (1.21–4.70)0.01NA
Confirmation cohort153/6267 (median)CLL<62.41.63 (0.99–2.69)0.06NA
Combined cohorts543/96CLL<62.41.47 (0.97–2.23)0.07Age, sex, Rai stage, CD38, ZAP-70, IGHV, CD49d, cytogenetic abnormalities (FISH)
Cancer-specific survival
Tretli et al. (15), NorwayCohort of cancer patients145/6237–79Overall<441.0 (ref)0.01Sex, age at diagnosis, season of blood sampling
44–600.71 (0.36–1.40)
61–770.45 (0.21–94)
>770.39 (0.18–0.83)
Drake et al. (30), United StatesCohort of cancer patients370/9019–94Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma>62.51.0 (ref)0.002IPI, immunochemotherapy vs. all other therapy
<62.52.16 (1.33–3.51)
70/28T-cell lymphoma>62.51.0 (ref)0.05IPI
<62.52.26 (0.99–5.17)
71/19Mantle cell lymphoma>62.51.0 (ref)0.53MCIPI
<62.51.35 (0.53–3.39)
285/9FL>62.51.0 (ref)0.88IPI, FL grade 3, rituximab-based therapy, all other chemotherapy vs. observation
<62.50.90 (0.23–3.49)
109/8Post-FL (marginal zone and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma)>62.51.0 (ref)0.2Stage, performance status
<62.52.76 (0.58–13.1)
78/14Others>62.51.0 (ref)0.33Stage, performance status
<62.51.73 (0.58–5.17)
Event-free survival (lymphoma)
Drake et al. (30), United StatesCohort of cancer patients370/13219–94Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma>62.51.0 (ref)0.07IPI, immunochemotherapy vs. all other therapy
<62.51.41 (0.98–2.04)
70/49T-cell lymphoma>62.51.0 (ref)0.04IPI
<62.51.94 (1.04–3.61)
71/45Mantle cell lymphoma>62.51.0 (ref)0.78MCIPI
<62.51.09 (0.59–2.01)
285/104FL>62.51.0 (ref)0.75FLIPI, FL grade 3, rituximab-based therapy, all other chemotherapy vs. observation
<62.51.07 (0.71–1.62)
109/39Post-FL (marginal zone and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma)>62.51.0 (ref)0.95Stage, performance status
<62.50.98 (0.51–1.89)
78/35Others>62.51.0 (ref)0.71Stage, performance status
<62.51.15 (0.57–2.32)
Time to treatment (leukemia)
Shanafelt et al. (32), United StatesDiscovery cohort390/13163 (median)CLL<62.41.66 (1.16–2.37)0.005NA
Confirmation cohort152/7067 (median)CLL<62.41.59 (0.99–2.56)0.05NA
Combined cohorts542/201CLL<62.41.47 (1.11–1.96)0.008Age, sex, Rai stage, CD38, ZAP-70, IGHV, CD49d, cytogenetic abnormalities (FISH)
Leukemia-free survival
Pardanani et al. (31), United StatesCohort of cancer patients247/NA14–83Primary myelofibrosis<62.41.8 (0.8–4.4)NANA
<24.961.2 (0.2–4.1)
74/NA44–89De novo myelodysplastic syndromes<62.41.3 (0.3–4.0)NANA
  • aDeaths, unless otherwise stated.

  • bRecurrence.

  • cDeath from prostate cancer or development of bone metastases.

  • dRelative risk/odds ratio.