Table 1.

Characteristicsa of prostate cancer cases and controlsb, placebo arm, and the PCPT

Prostate cancer cases
ControlsTotalLow-gradeHigh-grade
N2091919794
Mean age at baseline (y)63.963.662.764.6
Mean age at biopsy (y)70.870.1c70.2c70.1c
Non-White (%)16.38.46.2c10.6
Family history (%)17.716.215.517.0
Cigarette smoking history (%)
 Current5.97.25.58.9
 Former60.856.555.357.8
 Never33.336.339.233.3
Mean pack-years smoked, current and former smokers24.721.0c19.6c22.2
Mean BMI (kg/m2)27.427.527.227.9
History of diabetes (%)9.15.84.47.2
Mean PSA
 Concentration at baseline (ng/mL)1.21.6c1.6c1.6c
 Concentration at biopsy (ng/mL)2.13.3c3.03.7c
 Velocity (ng/mL/y)0.110.27c0.200.34c
  • aFor all characteristics except baseline age, family history of prostate cancer, and race, from generalized linear models (linear for adjusted proportions and means and logistic for P values) adjusting for baseline age, family history, and race.

  • bCases and controls were frequency matched on baseline age and family history. All non-White controls were sampled. Cases were sampled from the placebo arm of the trial so that half were high grade (Gleason sum ≥7) and half were low grade (Gleason sum <7), and of these half were detected on a biopsy performed for an elevated PSA or an abnormal DRE (for-cause biopsy) and half were detected on a biopsy performed at the end of the trial per trial protocol (end-of-study biopsy). Controls were sampled from men who were negative for prostate cancer on the biopsy performed at the end of the trial per protocol.

  • cP < 0.05 compared with controls.