Table 1.

Summary of studies that investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and survival after breast cancer diagnosis

StudyYearNYear of diagnosisCountryAge at diagnosis range (mean)Exposure time (pre/postdiagnosis)StageFollow-up (mean/median)All-cause deathsBreast deathsRelapsesAdjusted for
Barnett et al. (11)20084,5601991–2005UK23–69PostAll6.8564Age, stage, grade, ER status
Beasley et al. (12)20114,4411988–2001USA20–79PostLocal and regional5.5525137BMI, physical activity, energy intake, age, state of residence, menopausal status, smoking, stage, HRT and treatment
Dal et al. (37)20081,4531991–1994Italy23–74PostAll12.6503398Region of residence, age, year of diagnosis, TNM stage and ER/PR status
Ewertz et al. (8)19911,7441983–1984Denmark<70PostAllUp to 7805Tumor size, skin invasion, number of positive LNs and grade
Flatt et al. (13)20103,0881991–2000USA18–70PostEarly7.3315518Stage, grade, years between diagnosis and study entry, physical activity, smoking, education, parity, body weight, and ethnicity.
Franceschi et al. (5)20091,4531991–1994Italy23–74Post12.6503Region of residence, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, tumor, node and metastasis stage, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, BMI, and smoking habit.
Goodwin et al. (18)20034771989–1996Canada26–74 (50)PostEarly6.152BMI, age, stage, nodal status, adjuvant hormone and chemotherapy, and total energy.
Hebert et al. (19)19984721982–1984USA20–80PostEarlyUp to 1073109Stage, ER status, age, BMI, menopausal status, meat and fat intake
Holmes et al. (10)19991,9821976–1990USA(54)PostAll18378326Age, diet interval, diagnosis year, BMI, OCP, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone use, smoking, age at first birth and parity, number of metastatic LNs.
Kwan et al. (7)20101,8971997–2002USA18–70PostEarly7.4273154293Age, BMI, folate intake, stage, hormone receptor status, tamoxifen use, treatment, and positive LN
Kwan et al. (1)20129,3251990–2006USA58.8PostI, II, III10.31,5429111,487Age, stage, race, education, menopausal status, hormone status, treatment, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and comorbidity
McDonald et al. (21)20021251989–1994USA(64.2)PostAll5.44533Stage, radiotherapy, cigarette smoking
Rohan et al. (22)19934121982–1984AustraliaPost5.5123112BMI and energy intake
Allemani et al. (17)20112641987–2001Italy35–70PreAll7.643BMI and non-alcoholic energy intake
Harris et al. (14)20123,1461987–2008SwedenN/RPreAllup to 21860385Age, energy intake, education level, marital status, menopausal status, BMI, calendar year of diagnosis, stage, grade and treatment
Hellmann et al. (6)20105281976–2003Denmark33.1–95.4PreAll7.8323Smoking, physical activity, BMI, HRT, age, stage, menopausal status, parity, education, adjuvant treatment
Holm et al. (20)20121,0281993–2006Denmark53–71PreEarly6.3178106110Tumor size, LN status, hormone receptor status, grade. BMI, smoking, menopausal status, HRT use, education level, physical activity, folate intake
McEligot et al. (3)20065161994–1995USA(65)PreAll6.79641Not reported
Pierce et al. (15)20071,4901991–2000USA≤70PreEarly8.7135118236Age, stage, adjuvant treatment, menopausal state, parity, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and HRT
Reding et al. (16)20081,2861983–1992USA≤45PreAll10+364Age, diagnosis year, mammography
Saxe et al. (9)19991491989–1991USA26–95 (57.8)PreAll5+2628Energy intake
Vrieling et al. (2)20122,5222001–2005Germany50–74PreAll5.5316235247Age, study centre, tumor size, nodal status, metastases, tumor grade, ER/PR status, radiotherapy, HRT use at diagnosis, mode of detection
Zhang et al. (4)19956981986–1991USA55–56PreAll356Age

NOTE: Dal et al. and Franceschi et al. reported the results of the same study, but the latter reported more details (5, 37).