Table 3.

Dietary supplement use and all-cause mortality among cancer survivors

Dietary supplement useHR (95% CI)a
User%Nonusers (deaths/N)Users (deaths/N)Model 1bModel 2cModel 3d
Any supplement84.699/326509/17920.93 (0.75–1.15)0.99 (0.79–1.25)1.00 (0.80–1.26)
Multivitamin63.8219/709369/13520.89 (0.76–1.06)1.02 (0.86–1.22)1.02 (0.85–1.22)
Vitamin A5.2536/189934/1111.12 (0.79–1.58)1.16 (0.80–1.67)1.19 (0.83–1.69)
Beta-carotene2.3593/206915/491.03 (0.62–1.72)1.30 (0.76–2.23)1.25 (0.74–2.10)
Vit. B complex7.9561/195047/1680.94 (0.70–1.26)0.97 (0.70–1.33)0.98 (0.72–1.34)
Vitamin B67.0523/184844/1491.03 (0.76–1.41)0.97 (0.70–1.35)0.99 (0.72–1.37)
Folic acid6.4556/198252/1361.51 (1.13–2.00)1.21 (0.88–1.65)1.21 (0.89–1.64)
Vitamin C27.0402/1426169/5721.06 (0.89–1.27)1.02 (0.84–1.24)1.05 (0.87–1.27)
Vitamin D12.0538/186370/2550.89 (0.69–1.14)0.84 (0.64–1.11)0.82 (0.63–1.08)
Vitamin E31.0402/1356164/6570.86 (0.71–1.03)0.91 (0.75–1.10)0.93 (0.77–1.12)
Calcium59.3243/791336/12550.86 (0.73–1.02)0.91 (0.77–1.09)0.91 (0.76–1.08)
Copper0.8603/21025/161.11 (0.46–2.68)1.25 (0.51–3.04)1.26 (0.51–3.06)
Iron10.0481/178088/2111.68 (1.34–2.11)1.43 (1.12–1.83)1.39 (1.09–1.77)
Magnesium6.0568/199140/1271.11 (0.81–1.53)1.12 (0.79–1.59)1.17 (0.83–1.65)
Selenium4.2537/188023/880.86 (0.57–1.31)1.02 (0.64–1.61)1.04 (0.67–1.64)
Zinc8.0513/180548/1690.96 (0.71–1.29)0.99 (0.72–1.36)0.98 (0.72–1.34)
  • aHRs and 95% CIs compared with nonusers of each dietary supplement in each stratum as a reference group.

  • bAdjusted for age and energy intake.

  • cAdjusted for age, energy intake, body mass index, physical activity level, current smoking, total comorbidity index, perceived general health, history of diabetes, history of high blood pressure, cancer type, cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, number of cancers, current cancer treatment, and years since cancer diagnosis.

  • dAdjusted for covariates included in Model 2 plus diet quality score.