Table 3.

Association of circulating 25-OHD levels with prognosis among patients with lung cancer

Reference, countryDesignNumber/eventsaAge (y)Cancer type25-OHD, nmol/LRR/ORc (95% CI)P-value/trendConfounders
Overall survival
Liu et al. (27), ChinaCohort of cancer patients568/8725–83NSCLC<25.361.0 (Ref.)Age, gender, smoking status, stage, histology, surgical operation, chemotherapy or radiation treatment
25.36–37.721.47 (0.58–3.73)
37.72–56.541.59 (0.75–3.39)
≥ 56.542.54 (1.01–6.41)0.048
Trend1.31 (1.00–1.72)0.048
Tretli et al. (15), NorwayCohort of cancer patients210/19042–82Not specified<461.0 (Ref.)Age at diagnosis, sex, season of blood sampling
46–610.40 (0.28–0.59)
62–810.34 (0.22–0.52)
>810.19 (0.12–0.30)<0.01
Heist et al. (28), United StatesCohort of cancer patients294/23333–85Advanced stage NSCLC<31.41.0 (Ref.)Sex, stage, performance status
31.4–50.41.09 (0.75–1.57)
50.7–68.91.03 (0.71–1.50)
≥69.11.08 (0.75–1.57)0.76
156/125Adenocarcinoma<31.41.0 (Ref.)
31.4–50.41.13 (0.67–1.91)
50.7–68.90.82 (0.49–1.37)
≥ 69.11.34 (0.81–2.19)0.51
51/37Squamous<31.41.0 (Ref.)
31.4–50.41.67 (0.65–4.28)
50.7–68.93.04 (1.05–8.84)0.14
≥69.11.60 (0.55–4.66)
128/101Stage III<31.41.0 (Ref.)
31.4–50.40.87 (0.50–1.52)
50.7–68.91.17 (0.70–1.96)
≥69.10.88 (0.49–1.57)0.98
166/132Stage IV<31.41.0 (Ref.)
31.4–50.41.32 (0.79–2.21)
50.7–68.90.99 (0.58–1.72)0.56
≥69.11.29 (0.78–2.15)
Zhou et al. (29), United StatesCohort of cancer patients447/23431–89Early-stage NSCLC<25.51.0 (Ref.)Age, sex, stage, pack-years of smoking, chemotherapy/radiotherapy, surgery season
25.2–39.21.07 (0.74–1.53)
39.4–53.70.80 (0.55–1.18)
>53.70.74 (0.50–1.10)0.07
232/111Stage IA<25.51.0 (Ref.)
25.2–39.21.02 (0.56–1.87)
39.4–53.71.33 (0.77–2.31)
>53.71.10 (0.62–1.96)0.53
215/123Stage IB–IIB<25.51.0 (Ref.)
25.2–39.21.01 (0.63–1.61)
39.4–53.70.51 (0.29–0.89)
>53.70.45 (0.24–0.82)0.02
Other outcomes
Recurrence-free survival
Zhou et al. (29), United StatesCohort of cancer patients447/269b31–89Early-stage NSCLC<25.51.0 (Ref.)Age, sex, stage, pack-years of smoking, surgery season chemotherapy/radiotherapy
25.2–39.21.21 (0.86–1.71)
39.4–53.70.90 (0.62–1.29)
>53.70.92 (0.64–1.33)0.37
232/111Stage IA<25.51.0 (Ref.)
25.2–39.21.21 (0.70–2.09)
39.4–53.71.43 (0.86–2.39)
>53.71.25 (0.75–2.08)0.32
215/123Stage IB–IIB<25.51.0 (Ref.)
25.2–39.21.30 (0.85–2.00)
39.4–53.70.72 (0.45–1.15)
>53.70.75 (0.45–1.23)0.06
  • aDeaths, unless otherwise stated.

  • bRecurrence.

  • cRelative risk/odds ratio.