Table 2.

Dietary factorsa in relation to overall dietary supplement use and diet quality

Dietary supplement useDiet quality scoreb
All (n = 2,118)Users (n = 1,792)Nonusers (n = 326)P<4.5 (n = 670)≥4.5 (n = 1,448)P
Diet quality scoreb4.5 ± 0.64.5 ± 0.64.4 ± 0.60.0023.8 ± 0.44.8 ± 0.4<0.0001
Total energy, kcal/d1934 ± 6961939 ± 6951911 ± 7040.511856 ± 7421970 ± 6700.0004
Protein, gm/d86.0 ± 34.986.7 ± 35.182.3 ± 33.10.0480.1 ± 35.388.8 ± 34.2<0.0001
Carbohydrate, gm/d239.8 ± 96.6240.4 ± 96.5236.6 ± 97.60.51220.5 ± 101.2248.8 ± 93.2<0.0001
Total fat, gm/d73.6 ± 30.373.5 ± 30.274.4 ± 30.90.6173.7 ± 31.473.6 ± 29.80.92
Saturated fat, gm/d25.4 ± 11.225.4 ± 11.225.7 ± 11.40.6625.7 ± 11.725.3 ± 10.90.46
Fruits and vegetables, servings/wk45.3 ± 25.245.9 ± 25.242.3 ± 25.10.0232.6 ± 22.851.2 ± 24.1<0.0001
Total meat, servings/wk12.7 ± 7.112.8 ± 7.112.5 ± 7.10.5512.3 ± 7.512.9 ± 6.90.04
Whole grains, gm/d32.1 ± 23.732.7 ± 24.129.1 ± 20.80.0126.6 ± 19.334.7 ± 25.0<0.0001
Alcohol, gm/d2.2 ± 6.42.3 ± 6.41.9 ± 6.40.314.3 ± 9.41.3 ± 4.0<0.0001
Dietary intake
 Vitamin A, IU/d10798 ± 795110948 ± 81439971 ± 67460.048214 ± 748711993 ± 7877<0.0001
 Folate, μg/d388.3 ± 177.6391.0 ± 179.6373.5 ± 165.90.10332.3 ± 167.7414.2 ± 176.2<0.0001
 Vitamin D, IU/d237.4 ± 158.8240.2 ± 160.0221.9 ± 151.60.06219.3 ± 156.8245.8 ± 159.10.0004
 Vitamin E, IU/d11.4 ± 6.011.4 ± 6.011.0 ± 5.60.2710.1 ± 5.212.0 ± 6.2<0.0001
 Iron, gm/d15.3 ± 7.815.5 ± 8.114.6 ± 6.40.0713.8 ± 7.016.0 ± 8.1<0.0001
 Calcium, mg/d846.6 ± 439.1852.8 ± 433.0812.5 ± 470.20.13790.1 ± 460.1872.8 ± 426.7<0.0001
Total intakec
 Vitamin A, IU/d14255 ± 31315029 ± 9,4859999 ± 6754<0.000111529 ± 904615517 ± 9141<0.0001
 Folate, μg/d651.5 ± 313.1701.9 ± 307.1374.7 ± 167.4<0.0001580.2 ± 317.2684.6 ± 305.8<0.0001
 Vitamin D, IU/d529.0 ± 321.2584.5 ± 312.4224.3 ± 155.6<0.0001507.6 ± 329.0538.9 ± 317.10.04
 Vitamin E, IU/d114.0 ± 145.8132.7 ± 151.211.1 ± 5.8<0.0001105.5 ± 139.2117.9 ± 148.70.07
 Iron, gm/d24.1 ± 19.225.8 ± 20.214.7 ± 6.5<0.000122.2 ± 18.925.0 ± 19.30.002
 Calcium, mg/d1318.8± 645.51410.9 ± 630.2813.0 ± 471.0<0.00011219.0 ± 662.01365.1 ± 632.6<0.0001
  • aMean ± SD.

  • bA score for adherence to the dietary recommendations in the 2007 WCRF/AICR guidelines for cancer prevention (range: 0–6).

  • cSums of the nutrient intake from natural and fortified foods and dietary supplements.