Table 3.

Differential methylation in cord blood DNA in relation to the combined grandmother's and mother's smoking during their pregnanciesa

Only grandmother smoked in her pregnancy vs. neither smokedOnly mother smoked in her pregnancy vs. neither smokedBoth grandmother and mother smoked in their pregnancies vs. neither smoked
ChrbGeneCpGCoefcSEdPCoefSEPCoefSEP
1GFI1cg10399789−0.0040.0040.339−0.0420.0095.47E06−0.0390.0101.14E04
1GFI1cg09662411−0.0010.0060.824−0.0750.0126.89E10−0.0820.0135.01E10
1GFI1cg06338710−0.0050.0040.260−0.0560.0107.61E08−0.0650.0136.84E07
1GFI1cg18146737−0.0030.0070.624−0.1040.0174.70E10−0.1170.0171.50E11
1GFI1cg12876356−0.0060.0080.438−0.1270.0171.45E14−0.1330.0192.90E12
1GFI1cg18316974−0.0030.0030.444−0.0670.0101.66E10−0.0700.0142.91E07
1GFI1cg09935388−0.0030.0080.692−0.1370.0161.79E18−0.1470.0192.48E14
1GFI1cg141793890.0040.0060.495−0.0830.0103.29E18−0.0790.0101.45E16
5AHRRcg23067299−0.0030.0040.4500.0250.0072.94E040.0250.0066.61E05
5AHRRcg03991871−0.0040.0020.116−0.0210.0052.18E05−0.0200.0053.71E05
5AHRRcg05575921−0.0020.0030.514−0.0570.0112.67E07−0.0740.0091.18E16
5AHRRcg21161138−0.0010.0030.777−0.0260.0051.70E06−0.0270.0071.29E04
6HLA-DPB2cg11715943−0.0070.0030.028−0.0190.0069.76E04−0.0180.0054.85E04
7MYO1Gcg19089201−0.0020.0020.3370.0100.0036.78E040.0150.0031.00E06
7MYO1Gcg22132788−0.00020.0030.9350.0210.0042.70E080.0230.0044.17E09
7MYO1Gcg041800460.0010.0040.8820.0500.0092.74E080.0620.0084.61E14
7MYO1Gcg128030680.0030.0070.6850.0710.0127.89E090.0860.0124.63E13
7ENSG00000225718cg04598670−0.000040.0060.995−0.0380.0094.05E05−0.0360.0119.81E04
7CNTNAP2cg25949550−0.0010.0010.600−0.0140.0021.31E17−0.0160.0024.30E23
8EXT1cg03346806−0.0010.0030.732−0.0220.0056.19E06−0.0070.0061.95E−01
14TTC7Bcg18655025−0.0020.0020.388−0.0140.0042.83E04−0.0070.0048.20E−02
15CYP1A1cg055496550.0010.0040.8380.0430.0083.41E080.0340.0091.08E04
15CYP1A1cg22549041−0.0070.0080.4360.0750.0141.57E070.0570.0181.50E03
15CYP1A1cg119240190.0010.0050.7890.0430.0074.37E090.0400.0111.39E04
15CYP1A1cg180924740.0010.0070.8770.0680.0124.79E090.0590.0174.51E04
21RUNX1cg12477880−0.0020.0040.7000.0260.0101.17E−020.0540.0111.16E06
  • aN = 928 individuals analyzed. “Their pregnancies” indicates the grandmother's pregnancy with the study mother and the mother's pregnancy with the study newborn whose cord blood DNA methylation we measured. All analyses adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, and parity.

  • bChromosome.

  • cRegression coefficient.

  • dStandard error for regression coefficient. CpGs with P values reaching a Bonferroni-corrected statistical significance threshold of 0.05/26 = 0.0019 are noted in bold.