Table 4.

Dietary supplement use and all-cause mortality stratified by diet quality

Diet quality scorea < 4.5 (n = 670)Diet quality scorea ≥ 4.5 (n = 1,448)
NonusersUsersNonusersUsers
Deaths/nDeaths/nHR (95% CI)bDeaths/nDeaths/nHR (95% CI)bPinteraction
Any supplements34/119178/5511.28 (0.85–1.92)65/207331/1,2410.89 (0.67–1.17)0.09
Multivitamin70/246134/4061.28 (0.93–1.76)149/463235/9460.90 (0.72–1.12)0.02
Vitamin A187/60613/291.71 (0.95–3.06)349/1,29321/820.95 (0.61–1.49)0.12
Beta-carotene207/6555/150.99 (0.39–2.48)386/1,41410/341.37 (0.72–2.58)0.72
Vitamin B complex194/62518/451.15 (0.68–1.95)367/1,32529/1230.87 (0.58–1.29)0.30
Vitamin B6182/59716/411.46 (0.85–2.52)341/1,25128/1080.84 (0.56–1.26)0.15
Folic acid192/63520/352.33 (1.33–4.08)364/1,34731/1010.96 (0.65–1.42)0.006
Vitamin C135/45861/1721.28 (0.92–1.78)267/968108/4000.94 (0.74–1.19)0.11
Vitamin D188/58524/850.83 (0.52–1.31)350/1,27846/1700.81 (0.58–1.12)0.84
Vitamin E137/44060/2001.00 (0.73–1.38)265/916104/4570.87 (0.68–1.10)0.31
Calcium87/282114/3701.07 (0.79–1.45)156/509222/8850.82 (0.66–1.02)0.11
Copper209/6643/61.60 (0.48–5.34)394/1,4382/100.77 (0.19–3.12)0.38
Iron171/57027/681.36 (0.86–2.13)310/1,21061/1431.46 (1.09–1.95)0.98
Magnesium200/63412/360.85 (0.45–1.60)368/1,35728/911.26 (0.84–1.89)0.42
Selenium185/60410/260.98 (0.47–2.03)352/1,27613/621.05 (0.59–1.89)0.89
Zinc180/58017/531.09 (0.65–1.81)333/1,22531/1160.87 (0.58–1.30)0.49
  • aA score for adherence to the dietary recommendations in the 2007 WCRF/AICR guidelines for cancer prevention (range: 0–6).

  • bHazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared with nonusers of each dietary supplement in each stratum as a reference group. Adjusted for age, energy intake, body mass index, physical activity level, current smoking, total comorbidity index, perceived general health, history of diabetes, history of high blood pressure, cancer type, cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, number of cancers, current cancer treatment, and years since cancer diagnosis.