Table 1.

Associations between baseline exposures (significant at P < 0.25) and cumulative HPV infection status

Frequency (%)OR (95% CI)
VariableHPV-negative n = 230 (42.8)Monoinfection n = 115 (21.4)Coinfection n = 192 (35.8)Coinfection vs. HPV-negativeCoinfection vs. monoinfection
Age at enrollment, y
 17–2096 (45.1)42 (19.7)75 (35.2)1.001.00
 21–2361 (37.9)34 (21.1)66 (41.0)1.39 (0.87–2.20)1.09 (0.62–1.90)
 24–2632 (37.2)21 (24.4)33 (38.4)1.32 (0.75–2.34)0.88 (0.45–1.71)
 ≥2741 (53.2)18 (23.4)18 (23.4)0.56 (0.30–1.06)0.56 (0.26–1.19)
Race
 White178 (40.7)93 (21.3)166 (38.0)1.001.00
 Black/Hispanica19 (45.2)8 (19.1)15 (35.7)0.85 (0.42–1.72)1.05 (0.43–2.57)
 Asian33 (56.9)14 (24.1)11 (19.0)0.36 (0.18–0.73)0.44 (0.19–1.01)
Age at first intercourse, y
 <1640 (33.3)26 (21.7)54 (45.0)1.001.00
 16–18121 (43.4)59 (21.1)99 (35.5)0.61 (0.37–0.99)0.81 (0.46–1.43)
 ≥1969 (50.0)30 (21.7)39 (28.3)0.42 (0.24–0.74)0.63 (0.32–1.22)
Number of lifetime sex partners
 0–175 (65.8)19 (16.7)20 (17.5)1.001.00
 2–476 (44.2)36 (20.9)60 (34.9)2.96 (1.63–5.39)1.58 (0.75–3.36)
 5–948 (33.6)30 (21.0)65 (45.4)5.08 (2.74–9.43)2.06 (0.96–4.41)
 ≥1031 (28.7)30 (27.8)47 (43.5)5.69 (2.91–11.11)1.49 (0.68–3.24)
Number of new sex partnersb
 0120 (52.9)54 (23.8)53 (23.3)1.001.00
 178 (47.9)31 (19.0)54 (33.1)1.57 (0.98–2.52)1.78 (0.99–3.18)
 ≥232 (21.8)30 (20.4)85 (57.8)6.01 (3.58–10.11)2.89 (1.64–5.07)
Anal sexc
 Never182 (45.7)83 (20.8)133 (33.4)1.001.00
 Ever43 (34.5)32 (23.0)59 (42.5)1.68 (1.08–2.62)1.15 (0.69–1.92)
Oral contraceptive useb
 Regularly156 (42.9)83 (22.8)125 (34.3)1.001.00
 Sometimes21 (36.2)10 (17.2)27 (46.6)1.61 (0.87–2.97)1.79 (0.82–3.90)
 Never53 (46.1)22 (19.1)40 (34.8)0.94 (0.59–1.51)1.21 (0.67–2.18)
Frequency of sex/weekb
 <1 time52 (39.1)24 (18.1)57 (42.9)1.001.00
 1–3 times127 (44.4)70 (24.5)89 (31.1)0.64 (0.40–1.02)0.54 (0.30–0.95)
 4–6 times40 (40.8)18 (18.3)40 (40.8)0.91 (0.51–1.63)0.94 (0.45–1.95)
 ≥7 times11 (55.0)3 (15.0)6 (30.0)0.50 (0.17–1.44)0.84 (0.19–3.65)
History of yeast infectionsc
 No126 (47.9)53 (20.2)84 (31.9)1.001.00
 Yes104 (38.0)62 (22.6)108 (39.4)1.56 (1.06–2.29)1.10 (0.69–1.75)
History of STIsc,d
 No219 (44.9)101 (20.7)168 (34.4)1.001.00
 Yes11 (22.4)14 (28.6)24 (49.0)2.84 (1.36–5.97)1.03 (0.51–2.08)
Chlamydiac
 No226 (44.3)106 (20.8)178 (34.9)1.001.00
 Yes4 (14.8)9 (33.3)14 (51.9)4.44 (1.44–13.74)0.93 (0.39–2.21)
Herpes (HSV-2)c
 No226 (43.4)112 (21.5)183 (35.1)1.001.00
 Yes4 (25.0)3 (18.8)9 (56.3)2.78 (0.84–9.17)1.84 (0.49–6.92)
Vegetable consumptionc
 ≥1 serving per day47 (45.2)21 (20.2)36 (34.6)1.001.00
 >1 serving per week103 (40.7)51 (20.2)99 (39.1)1.26 (0.75–2.10)1.13 (0.60–2.14)
 1 serving per week64 (44.1)33 (22.8)48 (33.1)0.98 (0.55–1.74)0.85 (0.42–1.70)
 Rarely16 (45.7)10 (28.6)9 (25.7)0.73 (0.29–1.85)0.53 (0.18–1.50)
Alcohol consumptione (drinks per week)
 095 (48.7)35 (18.0)65 (33.3)1.001.00
 1—377 (49.0)31 (19.8)49 (31.2)0.93 (0.58–1.50)0.85 (0.46–1.57)
 ≥458 (31.4)49 (26.5)78 (42.2)1.97 (1.24–3.13)0.86 (0.50–1.48)
Average cigarettes smoked/dayc
 Nonsmoker152 (48.0)66 (20.8)99 (31.2)1.001.00
 <110 (43.5)6 (26.1)7 (30.4)1.08 (0.40–2.92)0.78 (0.25–2.42)
 1—534 (37.8)17 (18.9)39 (43.3)1.76 (1.04–2.98)1.53 (0.80–2.93)
 >534 (37.8)26 (24.3)47 (43.9)2.12 (1.28–3.53)1.21 (0.68–2.13)
 Any78 (35.5)49 (22.3)93 (42.3)1.83 (1.24–2.71)1.27 (0.79–2.02)
HLA-DQB1*03
 No70 (37.0)44 (23.3)75 (39.7)1.001.00
 Yes160 (46.0)71 (20.4)117 (33.6)0.68 (0.46–1.02)0.97 (0.60–1.55)
HLA-DQB1*06:02
 No187 (44.3)92 (21.8)143 (33.9)1.001.00
 Yes43 (37.4)23 (20.0)49 (42.6)1.49 (0.94–2.37)1.37 (0.78–2.40)
HLA-DRB1*15:01
 No176 (44.2)87 (21.9)135 (33.9)1.001.00
 Yes54 (38.9)28 (20.1)57 (41.0)1.38 (0.89–2.13)1.31 (0.78–2.22)
HLA-G*01:01:01
 No71 (41.3)46 (26.7)55 (32.0)1.001.00
 Yes159 (43.6)69 (18.9)137 (37.5)1.11 (0.73–1.69)1.66 (1.02–2.70)
HLA-G*01:01:03
 No205 (43.8)94 (20.1)169 (36.1)1.001.00
 Yes25 (36.2)21 (30.4)23 (33.3)1.12 (0.61–2.04)0.61 (0.32–1.16)
HLA-G*01:01:05
 No216 (42.9)110 (21.9)177 (35.2)1.001.00
 Yes14 (41.2)5 (14.7)15 (44.1)1.31 (0.62–2.78)1.86 (0.66–5.27)
HLA-G*01:01:07
 No221 (42.9)108 (21.0)186 (36.1)1.001.00
 Yes9 (40.9)7 (31.8)6 (27.3)0.79 (0.28–2.27)0.50 (0.16–1.52)

NOTE: Bold indicates statistical significance based on the 95% confidence interval.

  • aThese categories combined due to small numbers.

  • bIn the last year before enrollment.

  • cIn lifetime.

  • dIncludes trichomoniasis, chlamydia, herpes, syphilis, gonorrhea, and genital sores.

  • eIn the past 5 years.