Table 3.

Association of individual and neighborhood SES with all-cause mortality by race/ethnicity: HRs with 95% CIs, San Francisco Bay Area, 1995 to 2008 (with follow-up through 2009)

Non-Hispanic whiteAfrican-AmericanHispanicAsian-American
Base modelaBase + education + nSES modelbBase modelaBase + education + nSES modelbBase modelaBase + education + nSES modelbBase modelaBase + education + nSES modelb
SES variablesHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Education
 College degree+1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Vocational/some college1.03 (0.78–1.36)1.01 (0.76–1.34)0.92 (0.65–1.31)0.88 (0.62–1.26)1.31 (0.83–2.06)1.25 (0.79–1.97)1.29 (0.74–2.23)1.11 (0.63–1.97)
 = High school degreec1.27 (0.92–1.74)1.19 (0.86–1.65)1.03 (0.69–1.54)0.92 (0.60–1.40)1.20 (0.75–1. 92)1.08 (0.66–1.77)2.13 (1.28–3.52)1.53 (0.89–2.62)
 <High school degree1.40 (0.96–2.06)1.20 (0.80–1.80)1.38 (0.90–2.11)1.15 (0.73–1.81)
  Ptrend0.170.340.050.310.190.760.010.13
Neighborhood SES (nSES)e
 Q5-high SES1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Q41.15 (0.86–1.54)1.12 (0.84–1.50)0.65 (0.41–1.02)0.66 (0.42–1.03)1.12 (0.77–1.63)1.12 (0.76–1.64)2.14 (1.31–3.51)1.99 (1.19–3.34)
 Q31.28 (0.86–1.91)1.24 (0.83–1.85)1.03 (0.67–1.59)1.03 (0.66–1.61)1.38 (0.96–1.99)1.37 (0.92–2.02)2.29 (1.24–4.23)2.02 (1.07–3.82)
 Q2d1.64 (0.91–2.94)1.56 (0.86–2.83)1.17 (0.80–1.71)1.16 (0.78–1.71)1.59 (1.07–2.36)1.57 (1.03–2.38)3.79 (1.89–7.61)3.18 (1.51–6.70)
 Q1-low SES1.33 (0.86–2.05)1.29 (0.82–2.03)1.59 (0.94–2.67)1.57 (0.92–2.71)
  Ptrend0.050.080.010.030.010.010.010.01
Education and nSESf
 ≥Some college, high nSES1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 ≥Some college, low nSES1.22 (0.78–1.91)1.61 (1.16–2.25)1.41 (0.89–2.23)1.89 (1.02–3.50)
 ≤HS degree, high nSES1.19 (0.86–1.63)1.44 (0.86–2.42)0.99 (0.70–1.41)1.84 (1.00–3.38)
 ≤HS degree, low nSES1.62 (1.02–2.56)1.67 (1.20–2.32)1.39 (1.01–1.92)2.68 (1.37–5.23)

NOTE: Bold font refers to statistically significant associations.

  • aAdjusted for age at diagnosis (continuous), year of diagnosis (continuous), study eligibility [Northern California site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry (NC-BCFR) high risk, NC-BCFR sporadic, SFBCS], nodal involvement (no, yes, unknown), histology (ductal, lobular, other), histologic grade (1–4, unknown), joint ERPR status (ERPR, ER+, or PR+, unknown), type of surgery (none, lumpectomy, mastectomy, not otherwise specified, unknown), radiation (no, yes, unknown), chemotherapy (no, yes, unknown), subsequent primary tumor (yes, no) and clustering by block group, and stratified by AJCC stage (I–IV, unknown).

  • bAdjusted for covariates of model 1 and clustering by block group (individual education and neighborhood SES in the same model), and stratified by AJCC stage (I–IV, unknown).

  • cEducation levels <high school graduate and high school graduate collapsed as for non-Hispanic whites and Asian-Americans because of small sample sizes.

  • dNeighborhood SES quintiles 1 and 2 were collapsed for non-Hispanic whites and Asian-Americans because of small sample sizes.

  • eNeighborhood SES was measured using a composite measure of 7 Census indicator measures known as the YOST SES Index (29).

  • fHS, high school. Education levels (<high school graduate and high school graduate) collapsed as ≤ high school graduate. Neighborhood SES levels collapsed as Q1 to Q3: low SES; Q4 to Q5: high SES.