Table 2.

Effects of exercise dose and type on psychosocial functioning in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy, Canada, 2008–2011

Adjusted between group differences during follow-upa,b
Baseline M (SD)Adjusted mean follow-up scorea,b M (SE)COMB vs. STAN M (95% CI); PHIGH vs. STAN M (95% CI); PHIGH vs. COMB M (95% CI); P
Depression (0–30)
 STAN5.6 (3.9)6.8 (0.33)−0.4 (+0.5 to −1.3); 0.36−0.9 (+0.0 to −1.8); 0.061−0.4 (+0.5 to −1.4); 0.34
 HIGH6.3 (5.1)5.9 (0.33)
 COMB5.8 (5.0)6.4 (0.32)
Anxiety (10–40)
 STAN20.4 (6.6)18.4 (0.40)−0.5 (+0.6 to −1.6); 0.35−1.0 (+0.1 to −2.1); 0.084−0.4 (+0.7 to −1.5); 0.43
 HIGH20.6 (5.9)17.4 (0.39)
 COMB19.6 (7.3)17.9 (0.39)
Perceived stress (0–56)
 STAN20.4 (8.0)21.0 (0.6)−0.7 (+0.9 to −2.3); 0.41+0.4 (+2.0 to −1.2); 0.59+1.1 (+2.7 to −0.5); 0.17
 HIGH19.4 (8.1)21.4 (0.6)
 COMB19.2 (8.5)20.3 (0.6)
Self-esteem (10–40)
 STAN33.5 (4.3)34.8 (0.29)−0.9 (−0.1 to −1.7); 0.033−0.3 (+0.5 to −1.1); 0.51+0.6 (−0.2 to +1.4); 0.14
 HIGH34.3 (5.2)34.5 (0.28)
 COMB34.0 (5.2)33.9 (0.28)
  • aFollow-up score is the average for midpoint #1, midpoint #2, and postintervention based on repeated measures analyses.

  • bAnalyses are adjusted for baseline value of the outcome, age, education, baseline exercise, comorbidities, body mass index, disease stage, surgery type, and chemotherapy protocol.