Table 1.

Characteristics of cancer survivors and their cancers by dietary supplement use and diet quality

Dietary supplement useDiet quality scorea
All (n = 2,118)Users (n = 1,792)Nonusers (n = 326)Pb<4.5 (n = 670)≥4.5 (n = 1,448)Pb
Agec, y78.9 ± 3.978.9 ± 3.979.2 ± 3.9<0.000178.8 ± 3.979.0 ± 3.90.42
BMIc, kg/m226.9 ± 5.326.8 ± 5.228.0 ± 5.90.000226.8 ± 5.627.0 ± 5.20.54
≥High school education (%)d86.487.779.1<0.000185.586.80.42
Current smoking (%)3.52.78.0<0.00015.92.4<0.0001
Low physical activity (%)52.150.063.8<0.000159.348.7<0.0001
Total comorbidity countc2.1 ± 1.62.0 ± 1.62.2 ± 1.60.092.1 ± 1.52.1 ± 1.60.91
Diabetes (%)e16.615.721.20.0214.317.60.06
High blood pressure (%)e64.563.868.40.1165.564.10.52
Perceived general health (%)
 Excellent or very good27.628.323.90.0723.129.70.006
 Good49.649.848.851.848.6
 Fair or poor22.821.927.325.121.7
Age at cancer diagnosisc, y70.3 ± 6.170.3 ± 6.170.2 ± 6.20.7870.4 ± 6.070.2 ± 6.10.41
Cancer type (%)
 Breast45.745.945.10.8146.145.60.97
 Colorectal18.818.520.318.219.0
 Gynecologic13.513.314.113.413.5
 Other cancer22.022.320.522.321.9
Cancer stage (%)
 Localized70.770.770.90.9568.571.80.29
 Regional21.121.121.222.120.6
 Distant5.95.96.16.45.7
 Unknown2.32.31.83.01.9
First course of cancer therapy
 Surgery (%)93.393.094.70.2693.093.40.75
 Chemotherapy (%)16.817.015.50.5115.417.40.25
 Radiation (%)22.222.420.90.5422.721.90.70
 Hormone therapy (%)22.523.019.30.1422.922.30.74
 Immunotherapy (%)2.32.32.20.882.62.20.55
Time since cancer diagnosis (%)
 2–<5 y29.429.926.70.4731.328.50.09
 5–<10 y31.631.531.933.030.9
 ≥10 y39.038.641.435.740.6
Subsequent cancer (%)12.712.413.80.5013.612.20.38
Current cancer treatment (%)11.011.110.70.8313.310.00.03
  • aA score for adherence to the dietary recommendations in the 2007 WCRF/AICR guidelines for cancer prevention (range: 0–6).

  • bStudent t test for continuous variables and x2 test for categorical variables.

  • cMean ± SD.

  • dData from cohort baseline (1986).

  • eSelf-reported in the baseline or any follow-up surveys.