Table 2.

Key strategies across T0 to T4 research phases for ongoing studies

DefinitionKey strategiesExamples—both ongoing and future studiesExamples specific to future studies
ReachThe absolute number, proportion, and representativeness of individuals who are willing to participate in a given initiative
  • Collect data on nonparticipants and use mixed methods to understand why people do not participate or dropout

  • Increase recruitment efforts to hard to reach populations

  • Expand eligibility criteria for interventions and observational analyses

  • Assess demographics/health status of nonparticipants

  • Involve key community leaders; snowball recruitment

  • Include individuals with other chronic conditions and those ≥65 whenpossible

  • Interview participants, nonparticipants and dropouts

  • Incorporate evaluability procedures to assess Reach and other components below

Efficacy/effectivenessThe impact of an intervention on important outcomes, including potential negative effects, QOL, and economic outcomes
  • Track unanticipated/adverse events

  • Study moderating factors and subgroup effects

  • Determine MINC

  • Use practical, standardized measures

  • Collect data on contextual and individual factors and other behaviors

  • Interview participants and dropouts

  • Assess if participants using any other physical activity supports or resources

  • Report on outcomes by key health disparities

  • Collect data on physical activity beyond adherence to intervention protocol

  • Coordinate with other scientists to use common metrics for same outcomes

AdoptionThe absolute number, proportion, and representativeness of settings and intervention agents willing to initiate a programSetting level
  • Collect data on nonparticipating sites or reasons excludeda

  • Build partnerships with survivors, clinicians, and organizational leadership

Setting level
  • Track important characteristics (e.g. population served, location, size, etc.) of all sites approached to participate and reasons for ineligibility

Setting level
  • Use real-world setting and the comparison group

Staff level
  • Collect information on characteristics of participating and nonparticipating staff

  • Track staff participation

Staff level
  • Interview staff at participating and nonparticipating sites

Staff level
  • Use real-world practitioners as intervention delivery-agents

ImplementationThe intervention fidelity of agents to the various elements of the protocol of an intervention, including consistency of delivery as intended and the time and cost of the intervention
  • Assess resources and monetary costs

  • Document adaptations needed

  • Create standardized training and delivery materials

  • Assess consistency of intervention implementation

  • Track costs, including training, staffing, assessments, physical resources, and time

  • Document challenges, barriers, and adaptations/solutions and any changes in the study protocol

  • Track how interventions was implemented by different staff members, settings, and across subgroups of individuals

  • Allow for tailoring of intervention components to setting

  • Use nontraditional research designs (e.g., MOST, SMART, and CER) as appropriate to address likely challenges

  • Collect information on intervention setting context

  • Use mHealth and eHealth intervention delivery methods with less room for variability

MaintenanceIndividual level: Long-term effects of a program on outcomes ≥ 6 months after interventionSetting level: Extent to which a program or policy becomes institutionalized or part of routine organizational practices and policiesIndividual level
  • Include, basic minimal assessment of physical activity maintenance and intervention effects ≥6 months after intervention

  • Examine subgroups effects over follow-up period

  • Incorporate maintenance assessment period

  • Interview participants about maintenance of behavior

  • Interview setting about maintenance of intervention

  • Assess and report any program changes after formal research evaluation

  • Use mHealth and eHealth intervention delivery methods that can be maintained after intervention

  • Incorporate intervention sustainability assessment

Setting level
  • Assess maintenance of intervention within setting ≥6 months after intervention

  • aFor multisite interventions (49).