Table 5.

Number and type of dietary supplements and all-cause mortality among cancer survivors

Diet quality scorea
All survivors<4.5 (N = 670)≥4.5 (N = 1,448)
Deaths/NHR (95% CI)bDeaths/NHR (95% CI)bDeaths/NHR (95% CI)bPinteraction
Number of supplements used
 099/3261.0034/1191.0065/2071.00
 1137/4411.07 (0.81–1.40)48/1531.19 (0.73–1.93)89/2881.01 (0.72–1.42)
 2–4287/1,0580.97 (0.76–1.24)99/3061.27 (0.82–1.97)188/7520.84 (0.62–1.13)
 ≥585/2931.02 (0.75–1.39)31/921.34 (0.78–2.29)54/2010.86 (0.59–1.26)
  Ptrend0.780.250.180.04
Type of supplements
 No supplement99/3261.0034/1191.0065/2071.00
 Multivitamin only74/2610.96 (0.70–1.32)27/930.93 (0.53–1.62)47/1680.98 (0.66–1.45)0.86
 Multivitamin + others295/1,0911.00 (0.78–1.28)107/3131.40 (0.90–2.17)188/7780.83 (0.62–1.12)0.02
 Others only122/3910.97 (0.73–1.28)37/1311.04 (0.62–1.74)85/2600.93 (0.66–1.30)0.75
  • aA score for adherence to the dietary recommendations in the 2007 WCRF/AICR guidelines for cancer prevention (range: 0–6).

  • bAdjusted for age, energy intake, body mass index, physical activity level, current smoking, total comorbidity index, perceived general health, history of diabetes, history of high blood pressure, cancer type, cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, number of cancers, current cancer treatment, years since cancer diagnosis, and dietary quality score (for nonstratified analyses).