Table 4.

Coffee intake and gastric cancer risk by smoking status, alcohol use, and body mass index

OverallMenWomen
Coffee intakeCases, nHR (95% CI)Cases, nHR (95% CI)Cases, nHR (95% CI)
Never smokers
 Nondaily1321.00a481.00a841.00a
 Daily2190.71 (0.54–0.92)861.06 (0.69–1.63)1330.54 (0.38–0.76)
Ever smokers
 Nondaily611.00b591.00b21.00b
 Daily2351.10 (0.79–1.52)2011.00 (0.72–1.41)343.36 (0.75–15.03)
Alcohol nondrinkers
 Nondaily1671.00a831.00a841.00a
 Daily3800.84 (0.67–1.05)2221.09 (0.80–1.47)1580.61 (0.44–0.84)
Alcohol drinkers
 Nondaily261.00a241.00a21.00a
 Daily740.84 (0.5–1.42)650.80 (0.46–1.38)91.41 (0.24–8.18)
BMI (<23.1 kg/m2)
 Nondaily871.00c511.00c361.00c
 Daily2260.91 (0.68–1.23)1631.13 (0.78–1.64)630.59 (0.35–0.99)
BMI (≥23.1 kg/m2)
 Nondaily1061.00c561.00c501.00c
 Daily2280.79 (0.60–1.05)1240.90 (0.62–1.32)1040.66 (0.43–0.99)
  • aHRs are adjusted for age (years), gender (in overall model only), interview year (1993–1995, 1996–1998), dialect (Hokkien, Cantonese), education (less than secondary, secondary or greater), cigarette smoking status (never, former, current), number of cigarettes smoked per day (never, 1–12, ≥13), years smoked (never, 1–39, ≥40), body mass index (<20, 20–<24, 24–<28, ≥28 kg/m2), caffeine (mg/day), and total energy intake (kcal/day).

  • bHRs are adjusted for same covariates as listed above (a), excluding cigarette smoking status.

  • cHRs are adjusted for same covariates as listed above (a), excluding body mass index.