Table 3.

Geometric mean (95% CI) of angiogenesis biomarkers at baseline and 12 month, stratified by intervention arm, adjusted for BMI and baseline biomarker levels

Stretching controlExercise intervention
Baseline12 MonthChange (%)Baseline12-MonthChange (%)Pa
NMean (95% CI)NMean (95% CI)NMean (95% CI)NMean (95% CI)
VEGF (pg/mL)84418.3 (367–479)82419 (369–475)0.7 (−0.2)85325 (286–370)83320.8 (281–366)4.2 (−1.3)0.86
PEDF (μg/mL)8411.4 (10.9–12.0)8211.8 (11.2–12.4)0.3 (3.0)8511.6 (11.1–12.1)8311.2 (10.7–11.7)0.4 (−3.7)0.009
PAI-1 (ng/mL)805.4 (4.8–6.1)805.6 (4.9–6.3)0.2 (2.9)845.1 (4.5–5.7)814.8 (4.3–5.4)0.2 (−4.4)0.18
OPN (ng/mL)8057.9 (54.8–61.2)8057.2 (54.4–60.2)0.7 (−1.2)8459.3 (56.5–62.2)8157.5 (54.8–60.3)1.8 (−3.0)0.47
  • aP value: GEE (generalized estimating equations) model, testing the difference in change from baseline to 12 months between control group and exercise group, adjusted for BMI and baseline biomarker level.