Table 1.

Distribution of selected baseline characteristics stratified by sex and coffee intake frequency

MenWomen
Coffee intakeCoffee intake
Characteristic<1 cup/day1 cup/day2–3 cups/day≥4 cups/day<1 cup/day1 cup/day2–3 cups/day≥4 cups/day
Person years of follow-up108,838118,655136,91422,002155,252207,347140,41113,742
Mean age, y (SD)57 (8)57 (8)56 (8)55 (7)56 (8)56 (8)56 (8)56 (8)
Body mass index, kg/m2 (%)
 <2013.615.617.020.115.914.114.415.3
 20–<2451.853.054.254.254.654.755.256.2
 24–<2827.525.323.120.521.523.322.520.3
 ≥287.16.25.85.28.07.97.98.2
Education, ≥secondary level (%)43.137.834.933.926.119.417.015.3
Smoking status (%)
 Never53.444.135.019.494.791.688.476.7
 Former23.522.419.914.42.12.72.63.4
 Current23.133.545.166.23.25.89.120.0
Alcohol use, ≥1 drink/week (%)18.524.124.824.23.64.55.98.5
History of ulcer (% yes)6.64.13.75.63.31.81.83.0
History of diabetes (% yes)10.98.97.06.010.89.37.55.0
Additions to coffee or tea (% yes)
 Sugar48.171.778.583.236.964.574.584.7
 Milk50.950.748.138.342.347.445.134.6
Mean daily intake (SD)
 Total energy, kcal1,697 (584)1,702 (599)1,816 (618)1,929 (674)1,369 (465)1,366 (451)1,466 (493)1,568 (558)
 Caffeine, mg/1,000 kcal45.6 (46.9)81.3 (43.2)151.4 (59.3)255.8 (105.0)33.8 (42.8)86.1 (40.7)173.3 (65.4)306.1 (114.8)
 Fruit, g/1,000 kcal132.8 (96.8)129.0 (91.6)110.5 (83.1)92.6 (75.3)146.8 (108.7)143.0 (102.8)121.9 (92.6)97.3 (93.2)
 Vegetables, g/1,000 kcal67.3 (32.5)65.9 (30.3)61.5 (29.5)56.5 (27.6)82.5 (39.0)80.9 (36.0)74.4 (34.2)70.2 (34.3)