Table 3.

Associationa between inflammation assessed in benign prostate tissue from biopsy cores and prostate cancer risk, overall and by grade, placebo arm, and the PCPT

Prostate cancer cases
TotalLow-gradeHigh-grade
N1919794
At least one biopsy core with inflammation
 OR1.781.572.24
 95% CI1.04–3.060.83–3.001.06–4.71
Extent of biopsy cores with inflammationb
 Zero cores
  OR1.001.001.00
  95% CIReferenceReferenceReference
 Some cores
  OR1.611.451.97
  95% CI0.92–2.810.74–2.840.91–4.26
 All cores
  OR2.191.872.83
  95% CI1.18–4.060.88–3.941.24–6.44
   Ptrend0.010.100.01
  • aFrom the logistic regression model adjusting for the matching factors baseline age and family history of prostate cancer, and for the oversampling of non-White controls. Cases and controls were frequency matched on baseline age and family history of prostate cancer. All non-White controls were sampled. Cases were sampled from the placebo arm of the trial so that half were high grade (Gleason sum ≥7) and half were low grade (Gleason sum <7), and of these half were detected on a biopsy performed for an elevated PSA or an abnormal DRE (for-cause biopsy) and half were detected on a biopsy performed at the end of the trial per trial protocol (end-of-study biopsy). Controls were sampled from men who were negative for prostate cancer on the biopsy performed at the end of the trial per protocol.

  • bA mean of three biopsy cores was assessed per man. Some cores with inflammation usually meant one or two, but not all three cores had inflammation present.