Table 3.

Coffee and caffeine intake and gastric cancer risk

OverallMenWomen
Cases, nHR (95% CI)Cases, nHR (95% CI)Cases, nHR (95% CI)
Coffee intake
 Never/monthly1321.00a751.00a571.00a
 Weekly611.06 (0.78–1.44)320.95 (0.62–1.43)291.22 (0.78–1.92)
 1 cup/day1990.84 (0.66–1.07)1180.98 (0.72–1.33)810.66 (0.45–0.97)
 2–3 cups/day2231.00 (0.71–1.40)1471.12 (0.74–1.69)760.81 (0.45–1.47)
 ≥4 cups/day320.93 (0.49–1.79)221.06 (0.48–2.32)b100.76 (0.23–2.53)b
Ptrend0.4490.7190.068
 Nondaily1931.00a1071.00a861.00a
 Daily4540.85 (0.69–1.04)2871.03 (0.79–1.34)c1670.63 (0.46–0.87)c
Caffeine intaked
 Q1 (lowest)1611.00d851.00e761.00e
 Q21340.78 (0.62–0.98)860.89 (0.66–1.21)480.66 (0.46–0.94)
 Q31570.86 (0.69–1.07)1081.02 (0.76–1.36)490.65 (0.45–0.94)
 Q4 (highest)1950.98 (0.79–1.22)1151.02 (0.75–1.37)f800.98 (0.71–1.36)f
Ptrend0.8690.6850.902
  • aHRs are adjusted for age (years), gender (in overall model only), interview year (1993–1995, 1996–1998), dialect (Hokkien, Cantonese), education (less than secondary, secondary or greater), cigarette smoking status (never, former, current), number of cigarettes smoked per day (never, 1–12, ≥13), years smoked (never, 1–39, ≥40), body mass index (<20, 20–<24, 24–<28, ≥28 kg/m2), caffeine (mg/day), and total energy intake (kcal/day).

  • bP for sex interaction = 0.733.

  • cP for sex interaction = 0.184.

  • dThe following are the cutpoints for first through fourth quartiles of caffeine intake (mg/day): <71.2, 71.2–114.0, 114.1–224.1, >224.1.

  • eHRs are adjusted for same covariates as listed above (a), excluding caffeine and with the addition of alcohol consumption (never, ever).

  • fP for sex interaction = 0.948.