Table 5.

Geometric mean (95% CI) of levels of VEGF, PEDF, PAI-1, and OPN at baseline and 12 months, stratified by change in VO2max

Baseline12-MonthsDifference
VO2max changeseNMean (95% CI)NMean (95% CI)Change (%)PaPb
VEGF (pg/mL)Control84419 (367–479)161421 (384–460.3)1.1 (0.3)Ref.
Decreased VO2max22410 (318–529)22384 (312–470.7)26.7 (−6.5)0.46Ref.
Increased VO2max by <13.4%31311 (252–383)62310 (264–362.9)1.1 (−0.4)0.830.68
Increased VO2max by ≥13.4%32289 (235–355)64285 (249–327.3)3.7 (−1.3)0.940.54
(Pc = 0.99)(Pd = 0.63)
PEDF (μg/mL)Control8411.4 (10.9–12.0)16111.7 (11.3–12.2)0.3 (2.8)Ref.
Decreased VO2max2212.8 (12.0–13.6)2212.0 (11.0–13.1)0.8 (−6.2)0.046Ref.
Increased VO2max by <13.4%3111.6 (10.7–12.6)6211.3 (10.7–12.0)0.3 (−2.4)0.140.43
Increased VO2max by ≥13.4%3210.8 (10.3–11.4)6410.4 (10.0–10.9)0.4 (−3.4)0.0490.56
(Pc = 0.03)(Pd = 0.71)
PAI-1 (ng/mL)Control805.4 (4.8–6.1)1575.6 (5.1–6.1)0.2 (3.3)Ref.
Decreased VO2max225.6 (4.5–6.9)225.6 (4.3–7.2)0.0 (−0.0)0.87Ref.
Increased VO2max by <13.4%315.3 (4.3–6.6)625.1 (4.5–5.8)0.3 (−5.1)0.410.73
Increased VO2max by ≥13.4%314.5 (3.7–5.3)624.1 (3.7–4.6)0.3 (−7.3)0.240.61
(Pc = 0.20)(Pd = 0.58)
OPN (ng/mL)Control8057.9 (54.8–61.2)15757.1 (55.1–59.2)0.8 (−1.4)Ref.
Decreased VO2max2256.9 (50.8–63.7)2257.8 (52.9–63.1)0.9 (1.6)0.45Ref.
Increased VO2max by <13.4%3162.3 (58.4–66.6)6258.2 (55.3–61.3)4.1 (−6.6)0.100.10
Increased VO2max by ≥13.4%3158.1 (53.7–62.9)6256.1 (53.0–59.4)2.0 (−3.5)0.470.26
(Pc = 0.21)(Pd = 0.44)
  • aTesting differences in change from baseline to 12 months in biomarkers compared with controls.

  • bTesting difference in change from baseline to 12 months in biomarkers compared with the “decreased VO2max group,” excluding controls.

  • cTesting for a trend in change from baseline to 12 months in biomarkers from controls through “increased most VO2max group.”

  • dTesting for a trend in change from baseline to 12 months in biomarkers from “decreased VO2max group” through “increased most VO2max group.”

  • e13.4% corresponds to median levels of percentage increase in VO2max.