Table 2.

Selected baseline characteristics of participants in the MAP I and II case–control studies of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas

MAP IMAP IIPooled analysis
CharacteristicsCases (n = 106) mean (SD) or %Controls (n = 109) mean (SD) or %Cases (n = 33) mean (SD) or %Controls (n = 92) mean (SD) or %Cases (n = 139) mean (SD) or N (%)Controls (n = 201) mean (SD)
Age, y57.4 (8.9)56.1 (10.2)55.4 (7.3)55.5 (7.9)56.9 (8.6)55.9 (9.2)
Male (%)54.732.1a57.644.655.437.8b
BMI, kg/m227.8 (6.1)27.1 (5.7)28.5 (5.2)28.6 (6.7)27.9 (5.9)27.8 (6.2)
Physical activity, MET-hours/week216.8 (143.4)196.1 (127.3)163.7 (116.9)176.5 (125.2)204.2 (139.1)187.1 (126.4)
Family history of colorectal cancerc (%)17.033.0a21.119.618.026.9
HRT user (women only; %)62.554.178.670.666.160.8
Regularly take an NSAID (%)21.232.133.334.824.133.3
Regularly take aspirin (%)34.935.845.541.337.438.3
Current smoker (%)34.020.2a24.213.031.716.9a
Alcohol, drinks/week20.8 (25.6)14.6 (20.2)9.4 (9.1)13.4 (16.3)16.3 (21.4)13.9 (17.8)
Dietary intakes per day
 Total energy, kcal2,061.3 (851.8)2,172.6 (2493.7)1,831.3 (765.3)1,648.0 (647.8)2,006.7 (835.1)1,932.5 (1,902.0)
 Total PUFA, gm14.0 (6.3)14.4 (14.5)15.5 (8.9)14.1 (10.4)14.3 (7.0)14.2 (12.8)
 Dietary fiber, gm22.8 (9.4)25.5 (26.6)16.6 (6.7)15.3 (6.7)21.3 (9.2)20.9 (20.7)
 Totald vitamin C, mg286.6 (388.5)302.1 (354.6)237.5 (273.6)298.9 (369.4)275.0 (364.2)300.7 (360.6)
Plasma levels
 Plasma lycopene, μg/dL26.3 (14.3)25.8 (13.3)21.7 (11.4)24.6 (10.8)25.2 (13.8)25.2 (12.2)
 Plasma α-carotene, μg/dL2.7 (2.9)3.6 (4.8)2.6 (2.6)3.5 (3.1)2.7 (2.8)3.5 (4.1)b
 Plasma β-carotene, μg/dL15.3 (22.5)16.4 (15.5)12.6 (11.4)16.3 (13.0)14.6 (20.4)16.4 (14.4)
 Plasma lutein, μg/dL16.8 (7.2)18.1 (10.3)17.7 (6.2)15.7 (6.3)17.0 (6.9)17.0 (8.7)
 Plasma β-cryptoxanthin, μg/dL6.0 (4.7)6.9 (5.8)6.1 (4.1)8.1 (7.2)6.0 (4.5)7.5 (6.5)b
 Plasma α-tocopherol, mg/dL1.2 (0.5)1.1 (0.5)1.1 (0.3)1.2 (0.6)1.1 (0.5)1.2 (0.5)
 Plasma γ-tocopherol, mg/dL0.2 (0.1)0.2 (0.1)0.2 (0.1)0.2 (0.1)0.2 (0.1)0.2 (0.1)
 Plasma ferritin, mg/dL146.1 (135.2)148.8 (185.9)144.5 (108.3)130.8 (127.5)145.7 (129.0)140.6 (161.7)
 Plasma total cholesterol, mg/dL203.4 (35.8)206.3 (39.5)194.8 (32.4)199.3 (39.5)201.4 (35.1)203.1 (39.6)
Biomarker levels
 FIP, pg/mL94.0 (41.8)88.8 (38.4)76.0 (25.0)78.0 (28.9)90.1 (39.3)84.4 (35.1)
 FOP, avg. std. ref. adj.e0.06 (0.03)0.05 (0.02)0.03 (0.01)0.04 (0.01)0.05 (0.11)0.05 (0.13)
 CRP, μg/mL6.1 (6.1)7.5 (23.8)3.7 (5.0)4.6 (6.2)5.5 (6.0)6.2 (18.0)

Abbreviation: PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid.

  • aP < 0.01 based on t test for continuous variable and χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • bP < 0.05 based on t test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • cIn a first-degree relative.

  • dTotal = dietary + supplemental.

  • eUnit for FOP measurement is “average standard reference adjusted,” in which samples were calculated against a 1-ppm fluorescent reference standard quinine in 0.1 N sulfuric acid.