Table 2.

Characteristics of the population in the case–control studies

Exposure
Author (ref), study, and/or countryStudy base and periodCases/controls (cancer type)Control information Sex/ageAssessmentVariableValue
Kallianpur AR and colleagues (53); Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Study; ChinaPopulation (1996–1998 and 2002–2005)3,452/3,474 (breast)♀/25–7076-item FFQDietary iron (NA)NA
Adzersen and colleagues (54); Heidelberg, GermanyHospital (1998–2000)310/353 (breast)♀/25–75161-item FFQDietary iron (mg/d)11.2a
Levi and colleagues (55); Swiss Canton of Vaud, SwitzerlandHospital (1993–1999)289/442 (breast)♀/23–7479-item FFQDietary iron (mg/d)12.3a
Cade and colleagues (56); Southampton and Portsmouth, EnglandHospital (1990–1992)220/825 (breast)♀/50–6525-item FFQ + 141 FFQbDietary iron (mg)12.7a
Pelucchi and colleagues (61); Milan, ItalyHospital (1997–2007)230/547 (gastric)♀♂/22–8078-item FFQDietary iron (NA)NA
Corneé and colleagues (62); Marseille, FranceHospital (1985–1988)92/128 (gastric)♀♂/NADietary historyDietary iron (mg/d)12a
questionnaire
Ward and colleagues (63); Nebraska, USAPopulation (cases: 1988–1993; controls: 1992–1994)124 (esophageal)c and 154 (gastric)/449 (esophageal and gastric)♀♂/≥21Health Habits andHistoryDietary iron (μg/d) Heme iron (mg/d)13.4a1,038a
Questionnaire 1
O'Doherty and colleagues (26); FINBAR study, IrelandPopulation (2002–2005)224/256 (esophageal)c♀♂/cases were <85 and controls 35–84FFQEnergy adjusted dietary iron (mg/d)14.0d
Energy-adjusted heme iron (mg/d)1.2d
Blood sampleSerum iron (μg/dL)93.48d
Ferritin (ng/mL)125.97d
Toenail iron (ppm)10.36d
Levi and colleagues (45); Swiss Canton of Vaud, SwitzerlandHospital (1992–1997)223/491 (colorectal)♀♂/27–74FFQDietary iron (mg/d)13.4a
Sun and colleagues (46); Newfoundland, Labrador and Ontario; CanadaPopulation (1997–2006)1,760/2,481 (colorectal)♀♂/20–74170-item FFQTotal iron (mg/d)24.5d
Zhou and colleagues (72); Massachusetts General Hospital, USAHospital (1992–2000)923/1,125 (lung)♀♂/≥18126-item FFQEnergy-adjusted dietary iron (mg/d)1.3a
Energy-adjusted heme iron (mg/d)1.0a
Richie Jr and colleagues (86); New York, USAHospital (NA)65/85 (oral)♀♂/NABlood sampleSerum iron (μg/dL) men110d
Serum iron (μg/dL) women102d
Transferrin saturation (%) men22.7d
Transferrin saturation (%) women22.8d
TIBC (μg/dL) men399d
TIBC (μg/dL) women376d
Ferritin (ng/mL) men188d
Ferritin (ng/mL) women131d

Abbreviation: NA, information not available.

  • aMedian.

  • bThe latter was filled at home.

  • cOnly adenocarcinoma.

  • dMean.