Table 1.

Selected baseline characteristics of cases and controls

Cases (n = 90)Controls (n = 177)
VariablesPrevalence (%)Prevalence (%)Pa
Age, y40–492.23.4Matching variable
50–5927.828.8
60–6970.067.8
SexMen68.968.9Matching variable
Women31.131.1
Hepatitis virus infectious statusbHBV12.211.9Matching variable
HCV87.888.1
Alcohol consumptionNever51.139.00.08
Past11.17.3
<150 g/wk ethanol17.830.5
150 to <450 g/wk ethanol14.419.8
≥450 g/wk ethanol5.63.4
Smoking status, current smoker37.835.60.58
BMI, ≥25 kg/m237.817.5<0.01
Diabetes, yesc33.323.00.05
Coffee consumption, ≥1 cup/d23.339.00.01
ALT level, ≥70 IU/L46.06.0<0.01
Vegetable intake, g/dd44 (24–69)48 (27–75)0.33
Fish intake, g/dd45 (28–67)43 (27–66)0.78
Time from blood draw to diagnosis for the cases, yd6.1 (3.6–9.5)
  • aCalculated using the χ2 and Mann–Whitney test.

  • bPositive for HBsAg was regarded as indicating HBV infection and positive for anti-HCV antibody as indicating HCV infection.

  • cDiabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes, and/or antidiabetic medication use, and/or blood glucose ≥5.55 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) fasting or ≥7.77 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) nonfasting.

  • dMedian (interquartile range).