Table 2.

List of studies mentioned in this review including the study sample size, methods used, biomarker abbreviation, full biomarker names, cancer sites associated with biomarker for possible diagnosis, encoding genes, alternative names, and the accuracy of individual biomarkers or biomarker panels

ReferenceSample sizeMethods usedProtein abbreviationProtein full nameCancer associated with protein for possible diagnosisEncoding geneAlternative namesAccuracy of marker/marker panel
Xie and colleagues (73)131 Presurgery biopsy confirmed prostate cancer patients and 121 patients with prostatitis and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia Total cohort = 252Novel seroMAP-based multiplex A+PSA assay versus PSA assay aloneNY-ESO-1New York esophageal squamous cell carcinomaProstate, breast, lungNY-ESO-1Sensitivity = 79% Specificity = 84%
SSX-2,4Synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint 2,4ProstateSSX2
XAGE-1bX antigen family, member 1BProstateXAGE1B
LEDGFLens epithelium–derived growth factor p75ProstatePSIP1PC4, SFRS1 interacting protein 1, DFS 70, p75/p52, PSIP1
AMACRα-Methylacyl-CoA racemaseProstateAMACR
p90Transferrin receptor protein 90ProstateTFRC
PSAProstate-specific antigenProstateKLK3KLK3, γ-seminoprotein
PSAProstate-specific antigenProstateKLK3KLK3, γ-seminoproteinSensitivity = 52% Specificity = 79%
Wang and colleagues (14)119 Patients with prostate cancer and 138 healthy controls Total cohort = 257Phage protein microarrayBRD2Bromodomain-containing protein 2ProstateBRD2Sensitivity = 81.6% Specificity = 88.2%
eIF4G1Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 γ 1ProstateEIF4G1
RPL22Ribosomal protein L22ProstateRPL22
RPL13aRibosomal protein LBaProstateRPL13A
XP_373908Hypothetical protein XP_373908ProstateTo be determined
O'Rouke and colleagues (74)41 Patients with prostate cancer and 39 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia Total cohort = 80Reverse capture microarrayPSAPSAProstateKLK3KLK3, γ-seminoproteinSensitivity = 12.2% Specificity = 80%
TLN1Talin 1ProstateTLN1Sensitivity = 95% Specificity = 80%
TARDBPTAR DNA-binding proteinProstateTARDBP
LEDGFLens epithelium–derived growth factor p75ProstatePSIP1PC4, SFRS1 interacting protein 1, DFS 70, p75/p52, PSIP1
CALD1CaldesmonProstateCALD1
PARK7Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 oncogeneProstate, BreastPARK7DJ-1
Looi and colleagues (81)479 Patients with various types of cancer (including 41 breast cancer sera) and 82 healthy controls Total cohort = 561ELISA, Western blottingc-mycAvian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologBreast, lung, colonMycMycSensitivity = 43.9% Specificity = 97.6%
p16Protein 16Breast, colonp16
p53(Tumor) protein 53Breast, lung, colon, stomach, liverTP53
Zhong and colleagues (82)87 Patients with breast cancer and 87 healthy controls Total cohort = 174ELUSA, SEREXSERAC1Serine active site containing 1BreastSERAC1Sensitivity = 77% Specificity = 82.8%
RELTReceptor expressed in lymphoid tissuesBreastRELT
ASB-9Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) box protein 9BreastASB9
Desmetz and colleagues (83)49 Patients with DCIS, 58 patients with early-stage breast cancer, 20 patients with other types of cancer, 20 patients with various autoimmune diseases, and 93 healthy controls totoal cohort = 240ELISA, SERPAHSP60Heat shock protein 60Breast, colonHSP60Sensitivity = 31.8% Specificity = 95.7%
Chapman and colleagues (84)40 Patients with DCIS, 97 patients with primary breast cancer, and 94 healthy controls Total cohort = 231ELISAp53(Tumor) protein 53Breast, lung, colon, stomach, liverTP53Sensitivity = 45%–64% (DCIS-primary breast cancer) Specificity = 85%
c-mycAvian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologBreast, lung, colonMycMyc
HER2Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2Breast, lungERBB2HER2/neu, ErbB-2, CD340, p185
NY-ESO-1New York esophageal squamous cell carcinomaProstate, breast, lungNY-ESO-1
BRCA1Breast cancer type I susceptibility proteinBreastBRCA1
BRCA2Breast cancer type II susceptibility proteinBreastBRCA2
MUC1Mucin 1, cell surface associatedBreast, lungMUC1PEM
Hamrita and colleagues (85)40 Patients with invasive breast cancer and 42 healhy controls Total cohort = 82SERPAHSP60Heat shock protein 60Breast, colonHSP60Sensitivity = 47.5% Specificity = 95.3%
Yi and colleagues (80)81 Patients with presurgery breast cancer and 73 healthy controls Total cohort = 1542DE, immunoblot, mass spectrometryAHSGα-2-HS-glycoproteinBreastAHSGFetuin-ASensitivity = 79% Specificity = 90.4%
Pereira-Faca and colleagues (87)45 Patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer, 18 patients with prediagnostic lung cancer, and 62 matched healthy controls Total cohort = 1251D-SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE, Western blotting, mass spectrometry14-3-3 Θ14-3-3 ΘLungYWHAQSensitivity = 55% Specificity = 95%
PGP 9.5Protein gene product 9.5LungPGP
ANXA1Annexin ILungANXA1Lipocortin I
Qiu and colleagues (88)85 Patients with prediagnostic lung cancer and 85 matched healthy controls Total cohort = 170Protein microarrayANXA1Annexin ILungANXA1Lipocortin ISensitivity = 51% Specificity = 82%
14-3-3 Θ14-3-3 ΘLungYWHAQ
LAMR1Laminin receptor 1LungRPSARibosomal protein SA
Yang and colleagues (89)40 Patients with newly diagnosed lung squamous carcinoma, 30 patients with various other types of cancer, and 50 healthy controls Total cohort = 1202D-PAGE, ELISATPITriose-phosphate isomeraseLungTPITIMSensitivity = 47.5% Specificity = 90%
MnSODMitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2Lung, LiverSOD2SOD2
He and colleagues (90)94 Patients with non–small cell lung cancer, 15 patients with small cell lung cancer, 10 patients with gastric cancer, 8 patients with colon cancer, 9 patients with Myobacterium avium complex infection of the lung, and 60 healthy controls Total cohort = 1962D-PAGE, Western blotting, mass spectrometry, ELISACEACarcinoembryonic antigenBreast, colon, lung, stomachCEACAM genesSensitivity = 69.3% Specificity = 98.3%
α-Enolaseα-Enolase1LungENO1
CYFRA 21-1Cytokeratin fragment 21-1Lung, colon, stomachGRPFragment of cytokeratin 19
Chapman and colleagues (91)82 Patients with non–small cell lung cancer, 22 patients with small cell lung cancer, and 50 healthy controls Total cohort = 154ELISAp53(Tumor) protein 53Breast, lung, colon, stomach, liverTP53Sensitivity = 76%] Specificity = 92%
c-mycAvian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologBreast, lung, colonMycMyc
HER2Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2Breast, lungERBB2HER2/neu, ErbB-2, CD340, p185
MUC1Mucin 1, cell surface associatedBreast, lungMUC1PEM
NY-ESO-1New York esophageal squamous cell carcinomaProstate, breast, lungNY-ESO-1
CAGECancer antigen 1LungCAGE1
GBU4-5TAA GBU4-5LungGBU4-5
Liu and colleagues (92)46 Patients with colon cancer and 58 healthy controls Total cohort = 104ELISA mini-arrayCEACarcinoembryonic antigenBreast, colon, lung, stomachCEACAM genesSensitivity = 82.6% Specificity = 89.7%
Imp 1IMP dehydrogenase 1ColonIMPDH1Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 (IMPDH1)
p62Nucleoporin p62Colon, liverNUP62
KocK homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancerColonKOC
p53(Tumor) protein 53Breast, lung, colon, stomach, liverTP53
c-mycAvian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologBreast, lung, colonMycMyc
Reipert and colleagues (93)38 Patients with colorectal adenoma, 21 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma, and 38 healthy controls Total cohort = 97ELISAFas/CD95FAS receptorColonTNFRSF6Apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95), TNF receptor superfamily member 6 (TNFRSF6)Sensitivity = 17% Specificity = 100%
Kocer and colleagues (94)20 Patients with colorectal polyp, 30 patients with colorectal cancer, and 22 healthy controls Total cohort = 72ELISAMUC5ACMucin-5ACColonMUC5ACSensitivity = 54% Specificity = 73%
He and colleagues (98)25 Patients with colorectal cancer and 15 healthy controls Total cohort = 40SERPA, 2D-PAGE, Western blotting, mass spectrometry, immunohistochenistry, ELISAHSP60Heat shock protein 60Breast, colonHSP60Sensitivity = 52%Specificity = 93.3%
Chen and colleagues (99)52 Patients with colon cancer, 39 patients with breast cancer, 16 patients with cervical cancer, 70 patients with esophageal cancer, 73 patients with gastric cancer, 62 patients with hepatic cancer, 104 patients with lung cancer, 14 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer, 17 patients with ovarian cancer, and 82 healthy controls Total cohort = 447ELISA, Western blotting, immunohostochemistryc-mycAvian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologBreast, lung, colonMycMycSensitivity = 65.4% Specificity = 93.9%
p53(Tumor) protein 53Breast, lung, colon, stomach, liverTP53
CalnucNucleobindin 1ColonNUCB1
CCNB1G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1ColonCCNB1
CCND1G1–S-specific cyclin-D1ColonCCND1
Shimizu and colleagues (101)40 Patients with gastric cancer who had undergone gastric resection Total cohort = 40ELISAp53(Tumor) protein 53Breast, lung, colon, stomach, liverTP53Sensitivity = 42.5%
CEACarcinoembryonic antigenBreast, colon, lung, stomachCEACAM genes
CA 19-9Carbohydrate antigen 19-9StomachMUC1Cancer antigen 19-9, sialylated Lewis (a) antigen
Qiu and colleagues (100)61 Preoperative gastric carcinoma patients, 10 patients with gastritis, 10 patients with gastric ulcers, and 10 patients with gastrospasm Total cohort = 91ELISAp53(Tumor) protein 53Breast, lung, colon, stomach, liverTP53Sensitivity = 50.8% Specificity = 100%
CEACarcinoembryonic antigenBreast, colon, lung, stomachCEACAM genes
Farinati and colleagues (109)1,158 Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma Total cohort = 1,158ELISAAFPα-FetoproteinLiverAFPα-Fetoprotein, α-1-fetoprotein, α-fetoglobulinSensitivity = 54%
Marrero and colleagues (111)48 Healthy controls, 51 patients with noncirrhotic hepatitis, 53 patients with compensated cirrhosis, and 55 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma Total cohort = 207ELISAAFPα-FetoproteinLiverAFPα-Fetoprotein, α-1-fetoprotein, α-fetoglobulinSensitivity = 77% Specificity = 73%
DCPDes-γ-carboxyprothrombinLiverDCPProtein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist-II (PIVKA-II)Sensitivity = 89% Specificity = 95%
AFPα-FetoproteinLiverAFPα-Fetoprotein, α-1-fetoprotein, α-fetoglobulinSensitivity = 88% Specificity = 95%
DCPDes-γ-carboxyprothrombinLiverDCPProtein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist-II (PIVKA-II)
Takashima and colleagues (113)15 Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 20 healthy controls Total cohort = 352DE, 2D immunoblot, SEREXHSP70Heat shock 70kDa protein 1LiverHSP70Sensitivity = 46.7% Specificity = 90%
PrxPeroxiredoxinLiverPRDXSensitivity = 33.3% Specificity = 100%
MnSODMitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2Lung, liverSOD2SOD2Sensitivity = 40% Specificity = 90%
GAPDHGlyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenaseLiverGAPDHG3PDHSensitivity = 33.3% specificity = 65%
Zhou and colleagues (112)128 Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 76 patients with chronic hepatitis, 22 patients with liver cirrhosis, 54 patients with nasopharynx cancer, 54 patients with gastric-intestine, and 80 healthy controls Total cohort = 421SEREX, Western blot analysis, ELISAHCC-22-5Hepatocellular carcinoma–associated antigen HCC-22-5LiverHCCSensitivity = 40% Specificity = 100%
Li and colleagues (115)174 Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 63 patients with chronic hepatitis, 66 patients with other types of cancer, and 71 healthy controls Total cohort = 374SERPA, 2DE, Western blotting, protein microarrayDDX3XDEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 3, X-linkedLiverDDX3XSensitivity = 85.6% Specificity = 69.8%
AIFApoptosis-inducing factorLiverAIFSensitivity = 55.9% Specificity = 81.4%
EEF2KEukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinaseBreast, LiverEEF2KCaMKIIISensitivity = 78.8% Specificity = 78.5%
PBPProstatic-binding proteinLiverPBPSensitivity = 48.3% Specificity = 82.6%
hnRNP A2Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2LiverHNRNPA2Sensitivity = 64.4% Specificity = 70.9%
TPITriose-phosphate isomeraseLung, LiverTPITIMSensitivity = 64.4% Specificity = 75%
AFPα-FetoproteinLiverAFPα-Fetoprotein, α-1-fetoprotein, α-fetoglobulinSensitivity = 72.9% Specificity = 75%

NOTE: Only cancer types described in this review are included.

Abbreviation: 2DE, two-dimensional electrophoresis.