Table 2.

Survey items and standardized factor loadings for the final correlated four-factor model using full baseline sample (n = 5,193)

Survey itemαβ
Barriers: In the future, I would NOT WANT to get tested for colon cancer because…0.862
 the test might find something wrong0.584
 it is too embarrassing0.737
 it is inconvenient or too hard to schedule0.652
 the stool blood test might be disgusting0.659
 a special diet or emptying my colon is too much trouble0.650
 it might be painful0.713
 I do not have symptoms0.530
 it is too expensive0.539a
 there is no one to drive me home from the test0.494
 it would be embarrassing to talk to my doctor about screening0.677
 I do not have insurance or the copay is too high0.422a
Benefits: In the future, I would WANT to get tested for colon cancer because…0.878
 finding cancer early gives me a better chance at a cure0.860
 receiving clear findings would give me peace of mind0.825
 screening can find cancer early0.896
 my family would be happy if I got screened0.541
 getting screened is part of taking care of myself0.819
 if polyps are found and removed, cancer can be prevented0.610
Self-efficacy: How confident are you that you can…0.964
 make a decision about whether to get screened for colon cancer0.646
 complete colon cancer screening0.869
 complete colon cancer screening, even if you are nervous about it0.912b
 complete colon cancer screening, even if you are embarrassed about it0.904b
 complete colon cancer screening, even if you don't think you need it0.890
 find time to complete colon cancer screening0.893
 talk to your doctor about colon cancer screening0.855
 complete any necessary preparation for colon cancer screening0.902
 get support from family and friends to help you complete colon cancer screening0.733
 complete colon cancer screening even if you think your health is good0.912
 In uncertain times, I usually expect the best0.489c
 If something can go wrong for me, it will−0.698
 I'm always optimistic about the future0.480c
 I hardly ever expect things to go my way−0.829
 I rarely count on good things happening to me−0.739
 Overall, I expect more good things to happen to me than bad0.581

NOTE: All factors are correlated (P < 0.001): Barriers-Benefits, −0.203; Barriers–Self-Efficacy, −0.360; Barriers-Optimism, −0.308; Benefits–Self-Efficacy, 0.377; Benefits-Optimism, 0.116; Self-Efficacy–Optimism, 0.190. Factor loadings with the same subscript indicate items with significant error covariances (P < 0.001). Factor loadings in bolded text were not invariant across currently screened and never screened subgroups.