Table 1.

Characteristics of study population

VariableCategoryCCS (n = 319)Siblings (n = 208)
AgeYears (mean ± SE)14.5 ± 0.113.6 ± 0.2
SexaMale171 (54%)112 (54%)
Female148 (46%)96 (46%)
Race/ethnicitya,bWhite non-Hispanic274 (86%)194 (93%)
Others45 (14%)14 (7%)
White Hispanic4 (1%)4 (2%%)
Black14 (4%)3 (1%)
Others27 (9%)7 (4%)
TannerTanner stage (mean ± SE)3.6 ± 0.13.3 ± 0.1
1a33 (10%)33 (17%)
254 (17%)32 (15%)
339 (12%)36 (17%)
488 (28%)45 (22%)
5105 (33%)60 (29%)
DiagnosisaLeukemiaNA
 Acute lymphoblastic102 (32%)
 Acute myeloid8 (3%)
CNSNA
 Glial tumors38 (12%)
 Retinoblastoma16 (5%)
 Other CNS tumors15 (5%)
 Neuroectodermal tumors13 (4%)
Solid tumorsNA
 Sarcoma32 (10%)
 Renal30 (9%)
 Neuroblastoma23 (7%)
 Other solid tumors22 (7%)
 Non–Hodgkin lymphoma20 (6%%)
Time from diagnosis to studyYears [(mean ± SE); range]
All CCS10.1 ± 0.2 (5.0–17.8)NA
Leukemia10.2 ± 0.3 (5.1–16.0)
CNS9.7 ± 0.4 (4.3–17.1)
Solid tumors10.2 ± 0.3 (5.5–17.8)

Abbreviation: NA, not applicable.

  • aData displayed as n (%). Other solid tumors include: breast cancer (n = 2), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 4), germ cell tumor (n = 11), hepatoblastoma (n = 4), melanoma (n = 1).

  • bPer low cell counts, White Hispanic, Black, and other categories collapsed for the comparison between CCS and controls.