Table 3.

The joint effects between pesticide exposure, SNPs in the vitamin D pathway genes, and prostate cancer risk that met an FDR <0.20

UnexposedLow-level exposureaHigh-level exposurea
Case/controlCase/controlCase/control
PesticideGeneSNPAllelesN/NOR (95% CI)N/NOR (95% CI)N/NOR (95% CI)LRTFDR
ParathionRXRBrs1547387bCC513/944REF22/351.12 (0.65–1.94)12/390.54 (0.28–1.04)
CG+GGc113/2320.89 (0.70–1.15)8/81.82 (0.68–4.89)10/44.27 (1.32–13.78)2.4 × 10−30.19
ParathionGCrs7041bCCc186/367REF12/92.58 (1.07–6.25)10/63.09 (1.10–8.68)
AC313/5951.04 (0.83–1.30)14/241.12 (0.56–2.22)7/270.48 (0.20–1.14)
AA128/2071.22 (0.92–1.62)4/100.77 (0.24–2.50)5/100.93 (0.31–2.79)7.0 × 10−30.32
AC+AA441/8021.09 (0.88–1.34)18/341.02 (0.56–1.85)12/370.60 (0.31–1.19)3.8 × 10−30.19
ParathionGCrs222040bAAc190/373REF11/102.14 (0.89–5.12)11/63.39 (1.23–9.36)
AG311/5971.02 (0.82–1.28)14/231.16 (0.58–2.31)6/270.41 (0.17–1.02)
GG126/2061.20 (0.91–1.59)4/100.77 (0.24–2.49)5/100.93 (0.31–2.78)6.1 × 10−30.32
AG+GG437/8031.07 (0.87–1.32)18/331.04 (0.57–1.90)11/370.55 (0.27–1.12)3.0 × 10−30.19
TerbufosGCrs12512631TTc166/347REF69/941.58 (1.09–2.28)72/891.73 (1.20–2.49)
CT188/3821.03 (0.80–1.33)62/1231.08 (0.75–1.55)49/1330.78 (0.54–1.15)
CC52/741.47 (0.99–2.19)14/330.91 (0.47–1.75)10/260.82 (0.38–1.74)1.3 × 10−30.20
CT+CC240/4561.10 (0.87–1.41)76/1561.04 (0.75–1.46)59/1590.79 (0.55–1.13)9.5 × 10−40.07
TerbufosVDRrs4328262TT139/280REF58/751.60 (1.07–2.30)35/1080.66 (0.43–1.02)
GT192/3841.01 (0.77–1.31)67/1201.15 (0.80–1.66)68/1061.32 (0.91–1.91)
GG75/1391.08 (0.76–1.53)20/550.75 (0.43–1.30)27/341.63 (0.94–2.81)0.230.65
GT+GGd267/5231.02 (0.80–1.32)87/1751.03 (0.73–1.43)95/1401.39 (1.00–1.95)8.5 × 10−40.07

NOTE: Adjusted for age and state.

Abbreviation: REF, reference.

  • aIntensity-weighted lifetime days of exposure: low and high categories defined by the median among exposed controls.

  • bCorrelation between: GC SNPs rs7041 and rs222040, r2 = 0.98; RXRB SNPs rs9277937 and rs1547387, r2 = 0.90.

  • Test of the monotonic trend of prostate cancer risk across increasing tertiles of pesticide use: cPtrend < 0.01; dPtrend < 0.05.