Table 4.

The joint effects between pesticide exposure, SNPs in the vitamin D pathway genes, and prostate cancer risk

UnexposedLow-level exposureaHigh-level exposurea
Case/controlCase/controlCase/control
PesticideGeneSNPAllelesN/NOR (95% CI)N/NOR (95% CI)N/NOR (95% CI)LRTFDR
ParathionRXRBrs9277937bTT515/965REF22/361.11 (0.65–1.92)12/370.58 (0.30–1.12)
CT+CCc111/2110.98 (0.76–1.27)8/72.12 (0.76–5.88)10/53.48 (1.17–10.31)9.9 × 10−30.30
ParathionGCrs705120bCCc206/403REF13/112.27 (1.00–5.16)11/82.53 (1.00–6.43)
AC306/5761.04 (0.84–1.30)13/231.08 (0.53–2.18)7/250.52 (0.22–1.23)
AA115/1971.14 (0.86–1.52)4/90.85 (0.26–2.80)4/100.74 (0.23–2.40)0.020.51
AC+AA421/7731.07 (0.87–1.31)17/321.01 (0.55–1.87)11/350.58 (0.29–1.18)8.6 × 10−30.30
TerbufosVDRrs7139166CCc123/281REF36/870.97 (0.62–1.52)50/681.72 (1.12–2.62)
CG201/3671.26 (0.96–1.65)80/1191.58 (1.10–2.27)62/1281.14 (0.78–1.66)
GG82/1551.22 (0.87–1.71)29/441.55 (0.92–2.61)19/520.85 (0.48–1.50)0.110.57
CG+GG283/5221.25 (0.96–1.61)109/1631.57 (1.13–2.18)81/1801.05 (0.75–1.49)7.0 × 10−30.34
TerbufosVDRrs7132324CC169/355REF66/991.43 (0.99–2.07)45/1260.76 (0.52–1.12)
CT178/3371.11 (0.86–1.43)65/1191.17 (0.82–1.67)63/1021.32 (0.92–1.91)
TT59/1111.11 (0.77–1.60)14/320.94 (0.49–1.81)23/202.45 (1.31–4.58)0.040.57
CT+TTc237/4481.11 (0.87–1.41)79/1511.12 (0.80–1.56)86/1221.51 (1.08–2.11)9.0 × 10−30.34
Petroleum oil/distillateVDRrs7132324CC215/424REF20/500.82 (0.48–1.42)14/500.56 (0.30–1.03)
CT207/4071.00 (0.79–1.26)27/451.21 (0.73–2.00)36/491.49 (0.94–2.36)
TTc66/1320.98 (0.70–1.37)5/81.21 (0.39–3.76)11/45.50 (1.73–17.49)1.7 × 10−30.26
CT+TTd273/5390.99 (0.80–1.24)32/531.21 (0.76–1.93)47/531.79 (1.17–2.74)4.4 × 10−30.43
Petroleum oil/distillateRXRArs3132300GGc299/612REF38/541.47 (0.95–2.28)40/501.66 (1.07–2.57)
AG+AA184/3421.10 (0.87–1.37)14/490.60 (0.33–1.11)21/520.85 (0.50–1.44)5.9 × 10−30.43
AtrazineVDRrs17721101AA172/310REF240/4480.98 (0.76–1.26)228/4500.92 (0.72–1.19)
AC+CCd17/650.47 (0.27–0.83)34/690.90 (0.57–1.42)45/651.26 (0.82–1.93)9.4 × 10−30.96
MetribuzinVDRrs731236AA149/307REF30/660.96 (0.60–1.56)25/650.80 (0.49–1.33)
AG221/3451.32 (1.02–1.70)43/950.96 (0.63–1.46)33/940.74 (0.47–1.15)
GGc63/1360.96 (0.67–1.37)15/271.18 (0.60–2.28)27/272.11 (1.19–3.74)6.6 × 10−30.49
AG+GG284/4811.22 (0.95–1.55)58/1221.02 (0.70–1.48)60/1211.05 (0.72–1.52)0.840.99

NOTE: Adjusted for age and state.

Abbreviation: REF, reference.

  • aIntensity-weighted lifetime days of exposure: low and high categories defined by the median among exposed controls.

  • bCorrelation between: RXRB SNPs rs9277937 and rs1547387 SNPs r2 = 0.90; GC SNPs rs705120 and rs222040 SNPs r2 = 0.92.

  • Test of the monotonic trend of prostate cancer risk across increasing tertiles of pesticide use: cPtrend < 0.05; dPtrend < 0.01.