Table 3.

Estimated effect of dietary modification on risk of melanoma, according to selected baseline characteristics

InterventionComparison
SubgroupEventsAnn%EventsAnn%HR (95% CI)aP
Overall1140.071650.071.04 (0.82–1.32)
Age, y0.25
 50–59410.07620.070.99 (0.67–1.47)
 60–69540.08780.071.04 (0.73–1.46)
 70–79190.08250.071.15 (0.63–2.09)
BMI, kg/m20.13
 <25280.07460.070.91 (0.57–1.46)
 25–<30360.06660.080.83 (0.55–1.24)
 ≥30500.08520.061.43 (0.97–2.11)
Langley exposureb0.64
 ≤3754511.05850.071.03 (0.73–1.43)
 >3754491.11800.071.05 (0.74–1.47)
History of NMSC0.31
 Yes220.22260.161.37 (0.77–2.41)
 No920.061390.060.99 (0.76–1.29)
Smoking0.59
 Never620.08840.071.12 (0.80–1.55)
 Past460.07730.080.93 (0.64–1.34)
 Current60.0660.041.57 (0.51–4.87)
NSAID use0.42
 Yes440.09580.070.96 (0.71–1.30)
 No700.071070.071.18 (0.80–1.75)
Total vitamin D intake, IUc0.89
 <400640.07970.070.99 (0.72–1.36)
 ≥400490.08670.071.10 (0.76–1.58)
Total energy intake, kcal0.66
 <1677670.09910.081.11 (0.81–1.52)
 ≥1677470.06730.060.97 (0.67–1.39)
Percent energy from total fat,%0.006
 <36.9450.06940.080.72 (0.50–1.02)
 ≥36.9690.09700.061.48 (1.06–2.07)
Total fat intake, grams0.18
 <69.0600.08950.080.95 (0.69–1.32)
 ≥69.0540.07690.061.17 (0.82–1.67)
Vegetable and fruit servings/day0.037
 <4.6890.081060.061.26 (0.95–1.67)
 ≥4.6250.06580.100.65 (0.41–1.03)
Grain servings/day0.43
 <5.9960.081240.071.15 (0.88–1.50)
 ≥5.9180.05400.070.69 (0.40–1.21)
  • aAll models were adjusted for age, assignment in the Hormone Therapy trial, and assignment in the Calcium/Vitamin D trial.

  • bBased on the mean annual amount of sunlight reaching the clinic site as measured by the US Weather Bureau; the 1 langley = 1 g = cal/cm2.

  • cFrom diet and supplements.