Table 5.

Multivariate mixed model tests for heterogeneity of relationships between molecular signaturesc and epidemiologic risk factors adjusted for age at diagnosis for 193 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers of combined histologic subtypesd

C1C2C3C4C5C6
VariableβSEβSEβSEβSEβSEβSEMixed model P
Race
 Non-African AmericanReferentaReferentReferentReferentReferentbReferenta0.008
 African American−0.4400.196−0.1800.2020.1830.1980.2610.1960.5530.1980.4890.198
Age at menarche, y
 ≥12ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent0.611
 0–<120.0970.172−0.2000.173−0.0260.169−0.1610.1700.2170.1740.0940.174
Menopausal status
 PremenopausalReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent0.176
 Postmenopausal−0.0790.229−0.1890.232−0.2830.2250.0120.2280.2330.2330.2050.232
Number of live births
 NoneReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent0.151
 1–20.1040.196−0.1590.200−0.1530.197−0.0330.194−0.0460.200−0.0450.199
 3–40.3680.219−0.1360.224−0.1180.220−0.2980.217−0.0770.224−0.1550.223
 ≥50.2760.391−0.3700.401−0.1700.394−0.1180.3880.0270.4010.2600.399
Age at last pregnancy, y
 25–29ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentaReferenta0.253
 14–24−0.3180.205−0.3220.209−0.0590.1930.3150.2060.4540.2140.2390.201
 30–34−0.2970.200−0.1960.2040.0090.1890.3670.2010.2670.2080.1440.196
 ≥350.1620.2240.1780.228−0.2640.2110.0090.225−0.2180.233−0.4250.220
Breasfeeding, mo
 NeverReferentReferentaReferentReferentReferentaReferent0.380
 <6−0.1710.2070.1850.202−0.0510.1940.1950.208−0.0890.203−0.2200.201
 6–12−0.1460.2950.2450.287−0.0090.2770.1970.297−0.1230.289−0.2020.286
 ≥12−0.4410.241−0.6270.2350.1270.2260.2890.2430.7040.2360.4610.234
Duration of oral contraceptive use, y
 NeverReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent0.374
 0–<10.0970.2290.5540.231−0.2220.229−0.0060.227−0.4790.235−0.3770.233
 1–<50.0820.1880.1120.190−0.1350.188−0.0290.187−0.0770.193−0.3600.191
 ≥50.4110.1830.0000.185−0.1310.183−0.3360.182−0.1020.188−0.1630.186
Doctor diagnosis of infertility
 NoReferentReferentReferentReferentaReferentReferent0.460
 Yes0.4260.222−0.2090.2280.0590.224−0.4770.220−0.1220.227−0.1430.227
BMI (kg/m2)
 25–<30ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent0.218
 13–<250.2840.1800.2060.182−0.1020.180−0.1550.179−0.3860.181−0.3090.179
 30–<350.1600.230−0.0370.233−0.0160.230−0.0300.229−0.0880.232−0.2900.229
 ≥350.2450.2190.0950.221−0.0370.219−0.1660.218−0.1130.2200.1410.218
Tubal ligation
 NoReferentReferentaReferentReferentReferentReferent0.270
 Yes0.0620.1600.3420.161−0.0800.1600.0480.159−0.2770.162−0.3110.161
Endometriosis
 NoReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent0.056
 Yes−0.0550.244−0.1160.2490.1950.242−0.2160.2410.0270.2460.2630.246
Smoking status
 Never smokedReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent0.833
 Current smoker−0.0510.2060.0150.2100.2780.2050.0490.204−0.0340.2100.1690.209
 Ex-smoker0.1160.160−0.0040.163−0.0270.159−0.1160.1590.0330.1630.0880.162
Family history of breast or ovarian cancers
 NoReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent0.961
 Yes0.0370.1650.0180.1680.0460.165−0.0490.164−0.0020.168−0.0500.167
  • Multivariable regression analysis significance levels: aP < 0.05, bP < 0.01.

  • cC1: high stromal response, C2: immunoreactive, C3: well differentiated, C4: low stromal response, C5: mesenchymal/undifferentiated, C6: endometrioid.

  • dRegression coefficients are the expected difference in the signature, measured in SDs, associated with unit change in the covariate.