Table 3.

HRs and 95% CIs for the association of height (per 10 cm increase) with specific cancers in the WHI

Cancer siteN casesHR195% CIHR295% CIHR395% CIHR495% CI
Colorectuma1,9041.131.05–1.211.151.07–1.241.191.10–1.281.171.09–1.26
Colonb1,5161.131.04–1.221.141.04–1.241.181.08–1.291.161.07–1.26
Rectumb2571.221.00–1.481.261.03–1.551.371.10–1.701.251.02–1.53
Breastc6,7981.141.10–1.181.111.07–1.161.141.09–1.181.131.08–1.17
Endometriumd1,1091.181.07–1.291.101.00–1.221.191.08–1.311.161.07–1.26
Ovarye6831.110.99–1.251.141.01–1.291.110.98–1.261.131.00–1.29f
Cervixg831.300.93–1.831.410.99–2.011.420.99–2.021.380.96–1.99
Kidneyh3691.181.00–1.381.231.03–1.451.261.06–1.501.231.05–1.43
Bladderg4571.130.97–1.301.050.90–1.221.050.90–1.221.060.90–1.24
Thyroidi2701.271.06–1.541.321.08–1.621.331.08–1.631.291.05–1.58
Lung (NS)j2691.120.93–1.361.130.93–1.371.200.98–1.471.120.92–1.38
Lung (ES)g1,4660.990.91–1.071.000.92–1.090.980.90–1.071.091.00–1.19
Stomachg1520.980.77–1.261.010.78–1.311.020.79–1.331.050.82–1.35
Pancreasg4591.030.90–1.191.030.89–1.201.030.89–1.211.030.89–1.20
Melanomag1,1691.291.17–1.411.151.04–1.261.161.05–1.271.151.04–1.26
Braing1761.261.00–1.591.281.00–1.631.281.00–1.651.260.99–1.62
Leukemiag4471.090.94–1.261.040.89–1.211.040.89–1.221.050.90–1.22
NHLg8881.111.00–1.231.111.00–1.241.111.00–1.241.110.99–1.23
Multiple myelomag2821.291.07–1.561.301.07–1.571.281.06–1.561.291.06–1.57
All cancersh20,9281.151.12–1.171.121.10–1.151.141.11–1.161.131.11–1.16

NOTE: Shading indicates statistically significant associations. Women with a history of bilateral oophorectomy were excluded from the analysis of ovarian cancer, and women with a history of hysterectomy were excluded from the analysis of endometrial cancer.

Abbreviations: HR1, age-adjusted; HR2, multivariable-adjusted but without weight or BMI; HR3, multivariable-adjusted + BMI; HR4, multivariable + site-specific scaling of W/HX; NS, never smoker; ES, ever smoker.

  • aHR2 adjusted for age (continuous), servings of alcohol per week (continuous), pack-years of smoking (continuous), hormone therapy (ever, never), age at menarche (<12, 12, 13, >13), family history of colorectal cancer (yes, no, missing), physical activity (MET-hrs/wk—continuous), red meat intake (medium servings per day—continuous), folate intake (μg/day—continuous), aspirin use (yes, no), diabetes (yes, no), education (less than high school graduate, high school graduate/some college, college graduate, post-college), ethnicity (White, Black, other), randomization status in each of the clinical trials (dummy variables for treatment, control, placebo, not randomized).

  • bHR2 adjusted for age, alcohol, pack-years, hormone therapy, family history of colorectal cancer, physical activity, red meat intake, folate intake, aspirin use, diabetes, education, ethnicity, randomization status.

  • cHR2 adjusted for age, alcohol, pack-years, hormone therapy, parity (continuous), age at menarche, age at first birth (<20, 20–29, ≥30, missing), age at menopause (<45, 45–54, ≥55, missing), family history of breast cancer in a first degree relative (yes, no, missing), history of breast biopsy (ever, never, missing), education, ethnicity, randomization status in clinical trials.

  • dHR2 adjusted for age, alcohol, pack-years, hormone therapy, parity, oral contraceptive use (ever, never), education, ethnicity, randomization status.

  • eHR2 adjusted for age, alcohol, pack-years, hormone therapy, oral contraceptive use (ever, never), education, ethnicity, and randomization status.

  • fLower confidence limit = 1.001.

  • gHR2 adjusted for age, alcohol, pack-years, hormone therapy, education, ethnicity, and randomization status.

  • hHR2 adjusted for age, alcohol, pack-years, hormone therapy, age at menarche, education, ethnicity, and randomization status.

  • iHR2 adjusted for age, alcohol, pack-years, hormone therapy, history of thyroid nodules, history of goiter, education, ethnicity, and randomization status.

  • jHR2 adjusted for age, alcohol, hormone therapy, education, ethnicity, and randomization status.