Table 6.

Risk of childhood AML associated with exposure to tobacco smoking, by cytogenetic subtype: the NCCLS, 1996–2008

OverallAbnormal chromosome numbersRecurrent structural chromosome changesaNo apparent cytogenetic anomalies
ControlsCasesCasesCasesCases
Exposure to tobacco smokingN = 164N = 135ORb (95% CI)N = 52ORb (95% CI)N = 39ORb (95% CI)N = 24ORb (95% CI)
Multivariable model
 Maternal prenatal smokingc
  No1461141.00 (—)471.00 (—)351.00 (—)191.00 (—)
  Yes22301.46 (0.77–2.74)40.78 (0.16–3.87)40.45 (0.10–2.02)50.83 (0.17–3.91)
 Paternal prenatal smokingc
  No112771.00 (—)331.00 (—)271.00 (—)111.00 (—)
  Yes50511.36 (0.82–2.24)131.28 (0.54–3.01)90.87 (0.33–2.34)112.52 (0.83–7.66)
 Child's passive smoking at homed
  No1341001.00 (—)431.00 (—)261.00 (—)141.00 (—)
  Yes32411.41 (0.80–2.49)80.70 (0.21–2.35)132.76 (1.01–7.58)101.32 (0.31–5.58)
Joint effect of paternal prenatal smoking and child's passive smokinge
 No exposure during both periods111781.00 (—)
 Paternal prenatal smoking only20161.14 (0.55–2.39)
 Child's passive smoking only12161.57 (0.65–3.79)
 Exposure during both periods19221.60 (0.63–4.05)
P-value for interaction0.86

NOTE. Shaded areas when insufficient data (≤5 observations per cell).

Abbreviation: CI, confidence interval.

  • aIncludes any translocation involving chromosome 21, t(15;17), t(8;16), and inv(16).

  • bOR adjusted for child's age at diagnosis/reference date, sex, and Hispanic status, maternal race, and household annual income.

  • cThree months before conception and/or during pregnancy.

  • dAny smokers including mother, father, and others.

  • eModel is adjusted for maternal prenatal smoking.