Table 3.

Risk of childhood ALL associated with parents' and child's exposure to tobacco smoking, by immunophenotype: the NCCLS, 1996–2008

OverallB-cell precursor ALLT-cell ALL
ControlsCasesCasesCases
Exposure to tobacco smokingN = 975N = 767ORa (95% CI)N = 689ORa (95% CI)N = 70ORa (95% CI)
Multivariable model
 Maternal prenatal smokingb
  No8566611.00 (—)5941.00 (—)591.00 (—)
  Yes1181060.83 (0.56–1.24)950.78 (0.52–1.19)111.69 (0.64–4.46)
 Paternal prenatal smokingb
  No7034981.00 (—)4451.00 (—)471.00 (—)
  Yes2222181.17 (0.91–1.50)1991.19 (0.92–1.54)181.12 (0.58–2.19)
 Child's passive smoking at homec
  No7985991.00 (—)5361.00 (—)551.00 (—)
  Yes1631611.20 (0.84–1.72)1481.30 (0.90–1.88)130.61 (0.23–1.58)
Joint effect of maternal prenatal smoking and child's passive smokingd
 No exposure during both periods7775881.00 (—)5271.00 (—)
 Maternal prenatal smoking only21110.60 (0.27–1.35)90.59 (0.22–1.28)
 Child's passive smoking only67671.11 (0.75–1.65)631.14 (0.80–1.79)
 Exposure during both periods96941.04 (0.74–1.47)851.05 (0.74–1.51)
P-value for interaction0.350.31
Joint effect of paternal prenatal smoking and child's passive smokingd
 No exposure during both periods6704981.00 (—)4441.00 (—)
 Paternal prenatal smoking only127980.91 (0.68–1.22)900.94 (0.69–1.27)
 Child's passive smoking only74460.80 (0.51–1.09)440.90 (0.57–1.41)
 Exposure during both periods881151.50 (1.01–2.23)1041.60 (1.07–2.38)
P-value for interaction0.020.05

NOTE. Shaded areas when insufficient data (≤5 observations per cell).

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval.

  • aOR adjusted for child's age at diagnosis/reference date, sex, and Hispanic status, maternal race, and household annual income.

  • bThree months before conception and/or during pregnancy.

  • cAny smokers including mother, father, and others.

  • dModel with maternal smoking is adjusted for paternal prenatal smoking; model with paternal smoking is adjusted for maternal prenatal smoking.