Table 4.

Estimated effect of dietary modification on risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), according to selected baseline characteristics

InterventionComparison
SubgroupEventsAnn%EventsAnn%HR (95% CI)aP
Overall1,9231.282,9841.320.98 (0.92–1.04)
Age, y0.17
 50–595050.868240.930.93 (0.83–1.04)
 60–699531.391,4721.440.98 (0.91–1.07)
 70–794652.006881.971.03 (0.91–1.15)
BMI, kg/m20.26
 <256411.659321.591.06 (0.96–1.17)
 25 to <306871.281,1451.420.92 (0.84–1.01)
 ≥305891.038961.050.97 (0.88–1.08)
Langley exposureb0.74
 ≤3759081.231,3821.240.98 (0.90–1.07)
 >3751,0151.331,6021.400.98 (0.90–1.06)
History of NMSC0.64
 Yes4715.967545.991.01 (0.90–1.13)
 No1,4521.022,2301.050.97 (0.91–1.04)
Smoking0.93
 Never9561.251,5171.300.97 (0.89–1.05)
 Past8421.351,2871.400.98 (0.90–1.07)
 Current1031.071561.031.02 (0.80–1.31)
NSAID use0.14
 Yes6341.3110631.420.92 (0.84–1.02)
 No1,2891.271,9211.281.01 (0.94–1.08)
Total vitamin D intake, IUc0.43
 <4001,0531.151,6431.190.97 (0.90–1.05)
 ≥4008631.481,3301.530.99 (0.91–1.08)
Total energy intake, kcal0.62
 <1,2963971.076721.200.92 (0.81–1.04)
 1,296 to <16775251.397371.321.06 (0.95–1.19)
 1677 to <21505121.378241.470.93 (0.83–1.04)
 ≥21504821.307401.311.01 (0.90–1.13)
Percent energy from total fat,%0.20
 <33.85121.368031.470.95 (0.85–1.06)
 33.8–<36.94891.307831.350.96 (0.86–1.07)
 36.9–<40.84881.347531.341.01 (0.90–1.13)
 ≥40.84271.146341.141.01 (0.90–1.15)
Total fat intake, grams0.44
 <52.44121.116961.240.92 (0.81–1.04)
 52.4–<69.05041.347621.360.99 (0.89–1.11)
 69.0–<91.25161.377841.410.98 (0.88–1.10)
 ≥91.24841.317311.291.02 (0.91–1.14)
Vegetable and fruit servings/day0.67
 <2.33911.016211.070.94 (0.83–1.07)
 2.3–<3.34551.257271.330.95 (0.85–1.07)
 3.3–<4.65071.397381.351.04 (0.93–1.16)
 ≥4.65631.498871.550.98 (0.88–1.09)
Grain servings/day0.95
 <3.04351.196901.250.99 (0.87–1.11)
 3.0–<4.35151.317971.400.96 (0.86–1.07)
 4.3–<5.95261.457661.421.00 (0.90–1.12)
 ≥5.94401.187201.240.97 (0.86–1.09)
  • aAll models were adjusted for age, assignment in the Hormone Therapy trial, and assignment in the Calcium/Vitamin D trial.

  • bBased on the mean annual amount of sunlight reaching the clinic site as measured by the US Weather Bureau; 1 langley = 1 g-cal/cm2.

  • cFrom diet and supplements.